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Money Velocity with Costly Credit

  • Gillman, M.
  • Siklos, P.L.
  • Silver, J.L.

The paper functionally describes the income velocity of money by including the cost of a key substitute to money: exchange credit. Financial innovation causes the cost of credit to fall, the quantity of money demanded to fall, and the velocity to rise, all without shifting the money demand function. The paper derives a general equilibrium money demand function, specifies a parametric equation of the income velocity of money from the model, and finds cointegration between the relevant variables in an expanded velocity equation which also produces consistent dynamics. It explains U.S. post-war long-run velocity through only the substitution effects from the relative cost of exchange by money versus credit. It explains short run dynamics with the same substitution effect. In addition, evidence suggests that an income effect helps explain the dynamics as predicted by an application of the permanent income hypothesis.

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Paper provided by Wilfrid Laurier University, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 97-4.

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Length: 35 pages
Date of creation: 1997
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wlu:wpaper:97-4
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  1. Reinhart, Carmen & Arrau, Patricio & DeGregorio, Jose & Wickham, Peter, 1995. "The demand for money in developing countries: Assessing the role of financial innovation," MPRA Paper 14096, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Milton Friedman & Anna J. Schwartz, 1982. "Monetary Trends in the United States and United Kingdom: Their Relation to Income, Prices, and Interest Rates, 1867–1975," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number frie82-2, December.
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  7. Hafer, R W & Jansen, Dennis W, 1991. "The Demand for Money in the United States: Evidence from Cointegration Tests," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 23(2), pages 155-68, May.
  8. King, R.G. & Rebelo, S., 1988. "Public Policy And Economic Growth: Developing Neoclassical Implications," RCER Working Papers 225, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  9. McCallum, Bennett T., 1990. "Could a monetary base rule have prevented the great depression?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 3-26, August.
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  14. Hodrick, Robert J & Kocherlakota, Narayana R & Lucas, Deborah, 1991. "The Variability of Velocity in Cash-in-Advance Models," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(2), pages 358-84, April.
  15. Dennis Hoffman & Robert H. Rasche, 1989. "Long-run Income and Interest Elasticities of Money Demand in the United States," NBER Working Papers 2949, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Siklos, Pierre L, 1993. "Income Velocity and Institutional Change: Some New Time Series Evidence, 1870-1986," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 25(3), pages 377-92, August.
  17. Siklos, P.L. & Granger, C.W.J., 1997. "Regime Sensitive Cointegration with an Application to Interest rate Parity," Working Papers 97-5, Wilfrid Laurier University, Department of Economics.
  18. Melnick, Rafi, 1995. "Financial Services, Cointegration, and the Demand for Money in Israel," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(1), pages 140-53, February.
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  22. John H. Cochrane, 1994. "Permanent and Transitory Components of GNP and Stock Prices," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 109(1), pages 241-265.
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