IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

The impact of venture capital linkages on start-ups? cluster embeddedness

  • Katja Bringmann

    ()

  • Ann Verhetsel
  • Thomas Vanoutrive
  • Jo Reynaerts
Registered author(s):

    The existing literature on cluster embeddedness largely neglects the impact of finance on the development of firm?s network linkages. This is striking in so far that particularly venture capital is often referred to as ?smart money? providing firms not only with funds but also with network contacts. Thus, in this paper, we intend to quantitatively assess the impact of venture capitalists on start-ups? embeddedness. Embeddedness generally occurs along three dimensions namely the societal, the network and the territorial one. Societal embeddedness refers to the cultural environment economic actions take place in. Network embeddedness representing the structure and nature of relations an organization is maintaining and territorial embeddedness implying the degree of spatial anchoring of a firm in a specific geographical area. It is assumed that for firms and regions there are several advantages arising from deep network and, respectively, territorial embeddedness: Among others, they include local knowledge spillovers which promote innovative thinking and, subsequently, strengthen firms? global competitiveness and thereby fueling regional economic growth. In addition, particularly territorial embeddedness is reckoned as shielding to some extent against firm relocation that is widely regarded as hampering regional development. Due to the riskiness of their business, insufficient hard assets, and an unforeseeable rate of return, innovative startups are generally unable to get capitalized by more conventional sources of money i.e. bank lending and therefore often return to venture capital. Besides providing incumbent innovative firms with funds, venture capitalists, reverting to their vast sectoral knowledge and personal contacts, are frequently facilitating the entry of startups into existing personal and industry networks. Generally, it is anticipated that those network contacts are densest in the immediate neighbourhood of the investor. Summing up, given its ?social? character, it is hypothesized that venture capital is an important driver of start-ups? embeddedness that is nevertheless spatially constraint. In order to answer to what extent venture capital impacts portfolio firms? territorial and network embeddedness and whether the geographical location of the venture capitalist has an effect on start-ups? local anchoring, we conduct an empirical analysis using data on venture capital flows. By reviewing cluster embeddedness from a financial geographic perspective, this analysis complements the literature that hitherto has largely neglected the role of venture capital in this respect.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www-sre.wu.ac.at/ersa/ersaconfs/ersa13/ERSA2013_paper_00298.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Paper provided by European Regional Science Association in its series ERSA conference papers with number ersa13p298.

    as
    in new window

    Length:
    Date of creation: Nov 2013
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa13p298
    Contact details of provider: Postal: Welthandelsplatz 1, 1020 Vienna, Austria
    Web page: http://www.ersa.org

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Michael Fritsch & Dirk Schilder, 2006. "Does Venture Capital Investment Really Require Spatial Proximity? An Empirical Investigation," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2006-14, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
    2. Philip Cooke & Nick Clifton & Mercedes Oleaga, 2005. "Social capital, firm embeddedness and regional development," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(8), pages 1065-1077.
    3. Stuart, Toby & Sorenson, Olav, 2003. "The geography of opportunity: spatial heterogeneity in founding rates and the performance of biotechnology firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 229-253, February.
    4. Ron Martin & Peter Sunley, 2002. "Taking risks in regions: the geographical anatomy of Europe's emerging venture capital market," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 2(2), pages 121-150, April.
    5. Ron Martin & Peter Sunley, 2003. "Deconstructing clusters: chaotic concept or policy panacea?," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 3(1), pages 5-35, January.
    6. Michael Fritsch & Dirk Schilder, 2012. "The Regional Supply of Venture Capital: Can Syndication Overcome Bottlenecks?," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 88(1), pages 59-76, 01.
    7. Walter Powell & Kenneth Koput & James Bowie & Laurel Smith-Doerr, 2002. "The Spatial Clustering of Science and Capital: Accounting for Biotech Firm-Venture Capital Relationships," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(3), pages 291-305.
    8. Peter Sunley & Britta Klagge & Christian Berndt & Ron Martin, 2005. "Venture capital programmes in the UK and Germany: In what sense regional policies?," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(2), pages 255-273.
    9. Matthew A. Zook, 2004. "The knowledge brokers: venture capitalists, tacit knowledge and regional development," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(3), pages 621-641, 09.
    10. Alessandro Rosiello & Luigi Orsenigo, 2008. "A Critical Assessment of Regional Innovation Policy in Pharmaceutical Biotechnology," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(3), pages 337-357, January.
    11. J. Knoben & L. A. G. Oerlemans, 2008. "Ties that Spatially Bind? A Relational Account of the Causes of Spatial Firm Mobility," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(3), pages 385-400, April.
    12. Ron Boschma, 2005. "Proximity and Innovation: A Critical Assessment," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(1), pages 61-74.
    13. Cooke, Philip & Gomez Uranga, Mikel & Etxebarria, Goio, 1997. "Regional innovation systems: Institutional and organisational dimensions," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4-5), pages 475-491, December.
    14. Joris Knoben, 2006. "A Relational Account of the Causes of Spatial Firm Mobility," ERSA conference papers ersa06p1, European Regional Science Association.
    15. Bygrave, William D., 1987. "Syndicated investments by venture capital firms: A networking perspective," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 139-154.
    16. Mason, Colin M & Harrison, Richard T, 1995. " Closing the Regional Equity Capital Gap: The Role of Informal Venture Capital," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 7(2), pages 153-72, April.
    17. Harald Bathelt, 2002. "The Re-emergence of a Media Industry Cluster in Leipzig," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(5), pages 583-611, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa13p298. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Gunther Maier)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.