IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Spatial And Sectoral Productivity Convergence Between European Regions, 1975-2000


  • Julie Le Gallo


  • Sandy DallÂ’erba


This paper analyzes the evolution of labor productivity disparities among 145 European regions over 1975-2000 according to the concepts of sigma- and beta-convergence and emphasizes the importance of including both spatial effects and a disaggregated analysis at a sectoral level. We detect sigma-convergence in aggregate labor productivity and in the service sectors but not in the other sectors. This result can be explained by a transfer of resources from the agricultural sector to the more productive sectors that has been more marked in the poor regions. Empirical results also indicate that the common indicator of sigma-convergence lead to a bias when spatial effects are not included in the analysis. We then estimate beta-convergence models including the relevant spatial effects for each sector. The results show that inequality in productivity levels between core and peripheral regions persist and highlight how convergence speeds and the nature of spatial effects vary from one sector to another.

Suggested Citation

  • Julie Le Gallo & Sandy DallÂ’erba, 2005. "Spatial And Sectoral Productivity Convergence Between European Regions, 1975-2000," ERSA conference papers ersa05p191, European Regional Science Association.
  • Handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa05p191

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Enrique López-Bazo & Esther Vayá & Manuel Artís, 2004. "Regional Externalities And Growth: Evidence From European Regions," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(1), pages 43-73.
    2. Sergio J. Rey & Boris Dev, 2004. "Sigma-convergence in the presence of spatial effects," Urban/Regional 0404008, EconWPA, revised 22 Apr 2004.
    3. Paci, Raffaele & Pigliaru, Francesco, 1997. "Structural change and convergence: an Italian regional perspective," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 297-318, August.
    4. Quah, Danny T., 1996. "Regional convergence clusters across Europe," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-5), pages 951-958, April.
    5. Bernard, Andrew B & Jones, Charles I, 1996. "Productivity across Industries and Countries: Time Series Theory and Evidence," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(1), pages 135-146, February.
    6. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier X, 1996. "The Classical Approach to Convergence Analysis," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(437), pages 1019-1036, July.
    7. Martin Carree & Luuk Klomp, 1997. "Testing The Convergence Hypothesis: A Comment," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(4), pages 683-686, November.
    8. Carlino, Gerald & Mills, Leonard, 1996. "Are U.S. regional incomes converging? Reply," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 599-601, December.
    9. P Bodson & D Peeters, 1975. "Estimation of the Coefficients of a Linear Regression in the Presence of Spatial Autocorrelation. An Application to a Belgian Labour-Demand Function," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 7(4), pages 455-472, June.
    10. Quah, Danny, 1993. "Empirical cross-section dynamics in economic growth," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 426-434, April.
    11. Durlauf, Steven N & Johnson, Paul A, 1995. "Multiple Regimes and Cross-Country Growth Behaviour," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(4), pages 365-384, Oct.-Dec..
    12. Julie Le Gallo & Catherine Baumont & Sandy Dall'erba & Cem Ertur, 2005. "On the property of diffusion in the spatial error model," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(9), pages 533-536.
    13. Raffaele Paci & Francesco Pigliaru, 1999. "Is dualism still a source of convergence in Europe?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(11), pages 1423-1436.
    14. Raffaele Paci & Francesco Pigliaru, 1999. "European regional growth: do sectors matter?," Chapters,in: Economic Growth and Change, chapter 8 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    15. Robert J. Barro & Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 1991. "Convergence across States and Regions," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 22(1), pages 107-182.
    16. Enrique Lopez Bazo & Esther Vaya Valcarce & Antonio Jose Mora & Jordi Surinach Caralt, 1997. "Regional economic dynamics and convergence in the european union," Working Papers in Economics 12, Universitat de Barcelona. Espai de Recerca en Economia.
    17. Anselin, Luc & Bera, Anil K. & Florax, Raymond & Yoon, Mann J., 1996. "Simple diagnostic tests for spatial dependence," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 77-104, February.
    18. Carlino, Gerald A. & Mills, Leonard, 1996. "Testing neoclassical convergence in regional incomes and earnings," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 565-590, December.
    19. Giuseppe Arbia & Jean H. P. Paelinck, 2003. "Spatial Econometric Modeling of Regional Convergence in Continuous Time," International Regional Science Review, , vol. 26(3), pages 342-362, July.
    20. Durlauf, Steven N. & Quah, Danny T., 1999. "The new empirics of economic growth," Handbook of Macroeconomics,in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 4, pages 235-308 Elsevier.
    21. Somik V. Lall & Zmarak Shalizi, 2003. "Location and Growth in the Brazilian Northeast," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(4), pages 663-681.
    22. Sergio Rey & Brett Montouri, 1999. "US Regional Income Convergence: A Spatial Econometric Perspective," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(2), pages 143-156.
    23. Bernard, Andrew B & Jones, Charles I, 1996. "Productivity and Convergence across U.S. States and Industries," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 113-135.
    24. Juan R. Cuadrado-Roura & Begoña García-Greciano & José Luis Raymond, 1999. "Regional Convergence in Productivity and Productive Structure: The Spanish Case," International Regional Science Review, , vol. 22(1), pages 35-53, April.
    25. Baumol, William J & Wolff, Edward N, 1988. "Productivity Growth, Convergence, and Welfare: Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(5), pages 1155-1159, December.
    26. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    27. Gregory Mankiw, 1995. "The Growth of Nations," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 26(1, 25th A), pages 275-326.
    28. Esteban, J., 2000. "Regional convergence in Europe and the industry mix: a shift-share analysis," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 353-364, May.
    29. Konstantinos A. Melachroinos & Nigel Spence, 1998. "Capital and labour productivity convergence of manufacturing industry in the regions of Greece," ERSA conference papers ersa98p69, European Regional Science Association.
    30. N Vagionis & N Spence, 1994. "Total factor regional productivity in Greece," Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 12(4), pages 383-407, August.
    31. Sandy Dall’erba, 2005. "Productivity convergence and spatial dependence among Spanish regions," Journal of Geographical Systems, Springer, vol. 7(2), pages 207-227, June.
    32. Aten, Bettina, 1996. "Evidence of Spatial Autocorrelation in International Prices," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 42(2), pages 149-163, June.
    33. Chi-Young Choi, 2004. "A Reexamination of Output Convergence in the U.S. States: Toward Which Level(s) are they Converging?," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(4), pages 713-741.
    34. Quah, Danny, 1993. " Galton's Fallacy and Tests of the Convergence Hypothesis," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 95(4), pages 427-443, December.
    35. Jonathan Temple, 1999. "The New Growth Evidence," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(1), pages 112-156, March.
    36. Quah, Danny, 1996. "Regional Convergence Clusters Across Europe," CEPR Discussion Papers 1286, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    37. Bernard, Andrew B & Jones, Charles I, 1996. "Comparing Apples to Oranges: Productivity Convergence and Measurement across Industries and Countries," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(5), pages 1216-1238, December.
    38. Baumol, William J, 1986. "Productivity Growth, Convergence, and Welfare: What the Long-run Data Show," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1072-1085, December.
    39. Bernard Fingleton, 2001. "Equilibrium and Economic Growth: Spatial Econometric Models and Simulations," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(1), pages 117-147.
    40. David Dollar & Edward N. Wolff, 1993. "Competitiveness, Convergence, and International Specialization," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262041359, July.
    41. Barro, Robert J & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1992. "Convergence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(2), pages 223-251, April.
    42. Nazrul Islam, 1995. "Growth Empirics: A Panel Data Approach," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(4), pages 1127-1170.
    43. Magrini, Stefano, 1999. "The evolution of income disparities among the regions of the European Union," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 257-281, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Seya, Hajime & Tsutsumi, Morito & Yamagata, Yoshiki, 2012. "Income convergence in Japan: A Bayesian spatial Durbin model approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 60-71.
    2. Nicola Pontarollo, 2016. "Sectoral Productivity, Convergence And Space Between European Regions," Journal of Smart Economic Growth, , vol. 1(1), pages 1-27, August.
    3. Cardenete, Manuel Alejandro & Delgado, M. Carmen, 2015. "A simulation of impact of withdrawal European funds on Andalusian economy using a dynamic CGE model: 2014–20," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 83-92.
    4. Domenica Panzera & Paolo Postiglione, 2014. "Economic growth in Italian NUTS 3 provinces," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 53(1), pages 273-293, August.
    5. repec:seg:012016:v:1:y:2016:i:1:p:1-17 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Roberto EZCURRA, 2013. "Polarization Trends Across The European Regions," Region et Developpement, Region et Developpement, LEAD, Universite du Sud - Toulon Var, vol. 38, pages 11-26.
    7. repec:bpj:rmeecf:v:13:y:2017:i:1:p:14:n:4 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Mark Roberts & Mark Setterfield, 2010. "Endogenous Regional Growth: A Critical Survey," Chapters,in: Handbook of Alternative Theories of Economic Growth, chapter 21 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    9. Philipp Piribauer, 2016. "Heterogeneity in spatial growth clusters," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 51(2), pages 659-680, September.
    10. Amjad Naveed & Nisar Ahmad, 2016. "Labour productivity convergence and structural changes: simultaneous analysis at country, regional and industry levels," Journal of Economic Structures, Springer;Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS), vol. 5(1), pages 1-17, December.
    11. Nicola Pontarollo & Elisa Montresor & Francesco Pecci, 2012. "Sectoral productivity convergence between European regions: does space matter?," ERSA conference papers ersa12p559, European Regional Science Association.
    12. Julie Le Gallo & Yiannis Kamarianakis, 2011. "The Evolution of Regional Productivity Disparities in the European Union from 1975 to 2002: A Combination of Shift-Share and Spatial Econometrics," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(1), pages 123-139.
    13. Andrew Cassey & Katherine Schmeiser, 2013. "The agglomeration of exporters by destination," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 51(2), pages 495-513, October.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • O52 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Europe
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes
    • R15 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Econometric and Input-Output Models; Other Methods

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa05p191. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Gunther Maier). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.