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Effective versus Statutory Taxation: Measuring Effective Tax Administration in Transition Economies

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  • Mark E. Schaffer
  • Gerard Turley

Abstract

Wide differences between effective or realised average tax rates and tax yields that would result if statutory tax rates were strictly applied indicate tax compliance and collection problems. Due to the greater politicisation of tax systems in transition economies (TEs), we would expect the shortfalls in effective tax yields for TEs to be larger than a benchmark for the mature market economies where tax systems are well established, the administrative capacity is stronger and tax arrears are tolerated less frequently. The methodology involves calculating an effective/statutory (E/S) tax ratio. Initial results indicate that the leading TEs have E/S ratios similar to the EU average. We find a positive correlation between progress in transition and effective tax administration, as measured by our E/S ratio. For slow reformers, the effectiveness of tax collection appears to vary with the extent of state control. Those TEs that have maintained the apparatus of the state have done well in tax collection compared to those countries where there is evidence of state decay. This raises a number of broad policy issues relating to the speed of transition, the interaction of politics and economic reforms, the capacity of the state to govern and the need for market institutions to develop.

Suggested Citation

  • Mark E. Schaffer & Gerard Turley, 2000. "Effective versus Statutory Taxation: Measuring Effective Tax Administration in Transition Economies," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 347, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  • Handle: RePEc:wdi:papers:2000-347
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    1. repec:ces:ifodic:v:2:y:2004:i:3:p:14567754 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Alexander Libman & Lars P. Feld, 2013. "Strategic Tax Collection and Fiscal Decentralization: The Case of Russia," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 14(4), pages 449-482, November.
    3. Margit Schratzenstaller, 2004. "Towards Dual Income Taxes - a Country Comparative Perspective," ifo DICE Report, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 2(3), pages 23-30, October.
    4. Scott Gehlbach, 2003. "Taxability, Elections, and Government Support of Business Activity," Working Papers w0030, Center for Economic and Financial Research (CEFIR).
    5. Cheryl Gray & Tracey Lane & Aristomene Varoudakis, 2007. "Fiscal Policy and Economic Growth : Lessons for Eastern Europe and Central Asia," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6883.
    6. Mária Lackó, 2004. "Tax Rates and Corruption: Labour-market and Fiscal Effects. Empirical cross-country comparisons on OECD and transition countries," wiiw Research Reports 309, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
    7. Paola Profeta & Simona Scabrosetti, 2010. "The Political Economy of Taxation," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 13258, April.
    8. Christopher Gerry & Tomasz Marek Mickiewicz, 2007. "Inequality, democracy and taxation: lessons from the post-communist transition," UCL SSEES Economics and Business working paper series 74, UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies (SSEES).
    9. Budryte, Alge, 2005. "Corporate income taxation in Lithuania in the context of the EU," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 200-228, June.
    10. Ernesto Crivelli, 2016. "Trade liberalization and tax revenue in transition: an empirical analysis of the replacement strategy," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 6(1), pages 1-25, April.
    11. Scott Gehlbach, 2003. "Taxability and Low-Productivity Traps," Working Papers w0029, Center for Economic and Financial Research (CEFIR).
    12. Nur-tegin Kanybek D, 2008. "Determinants of Business Tax Compliance," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 8(1), pages 1-28, July.
    13. Maxim Bouev, 2001. "Labor Supply, Informal Economy and Russian Transition," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 408, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    14. Christopher Gerry & Tomasz Mickiewicz, 2006. "Inequality, Fiscal Capacity and the Political Regime: Lessons from the Post-Communist Transition," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp831, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    15. Paul G. Hare & Junior R. Davis, 2006. "Institutions and Development: What We (Think We) Know, What We Would Like to Know," CERT Discussion Papers 0603, Centre for Economic Reform and Transformation, Heriot Watt University.
    16. Margit Schratzenstaller, 2003. "Dualisierung von Einkommensteuersystemen: Stand und Perspektiven im internationalen Vergleich," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 72(4), pages 535-550.
    17. World Bank, 2002. "Romania - Building Institutions for Public Expenditure Management : Reforms, Efficiency and Equity - A Public Expenditure and Institutions Review," World Bank Other Operational Studies 15371, The World Bank.
    18. Michael Bolle & José Caétano & Jaakko Kiander & Vladimir Lavrac & Renzo Orsi & Tiiu Paas & Katarzyna Zukrowska, 2002. "The Eastward Enlargement of the Eurozone - State of the Art Report," Eastward Enlargement of the Euro-zone Working Papers wp02, Free University Berlin, Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence, revised 01 Jan 2002.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    statutory taxation; average tax rate; tax collection; effective administration; transition economies;

    JEL classification:

    • H2 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
    • H32 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents - - - Firm
    • H87 - Public Economics - - Miscellaneous Issues - - - International Fiscal Issues; International Public Goods
    • P5 - Economic Systems - - Comparative Economic Systems

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