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Disarming fears of diversity : ethnic heterogeneity and state militarization, 1988-2002

  • de Soysa, Indra
  • Neumayer, Eric

The authors address the question of state militarization under conditions of ethnic and other diversity."Primordialist"claims about ancient hatreds, fear, and insecurity in such societies would lead one to expect that fractionalization, polarization, and ethno-nationalist exclusion would prompt governments to militarize heavily. But contrary to such expectations, the authors find that higher levels of ethnic diversity predict lower levels of militarization, whereas higher polarization and ethno-nationalist exclusion trigger neither lower nor higher levels of militarization. If fractionalization lowers the hazard of civil war, as many find, then it does not happen by way of a"garrison state"effect. The authors discuss two potential explanations for their findings, one drawing from the empirical conflict literature, the other stemming from economists'study of public goods provision under conditions of diversity. They argue that their findings are best seen as consistent with and complementary to the empirical literature on conflict onset and duration.

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Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 4221.

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Date of creation: 01 May 2007
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4221
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  1. Paul Collier & Anke Hoeffler, 2004. "Military Expenditure in Post-Conflict Societies," Development and Comp Systems 0409059, EconWPA.
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  7. Paul Collier & Anke Hoeffler, 2004. "Military Expenditure in Post-Conflict Societies," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2004-13, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  8. Wacziarg, Romain & Alesina, Alberto & Devleeschauwer, Arnaud & Easterly, William & Kurlat, Sergio, 2002. "Fractionalization," Research Papers 1744, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
  9. Alesina, Alberto & Drazen, Allan, 1991. "Why Are Stabilizations Delayed?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(5), pages 1170-88, December.
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  13. Montalvo, Jose G. & Reynal-Querol, Marta, 2005. "Ethnic diversity and economic development," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 293-323, April.
  14. Collier, Paul & Hoeffler, Anke, 2000. "Greed and grievance in civil war," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2355, The World Bank.
  15. Easterly, W & Levine, R, 1996. "Africa's Growth Tragedy : Policies and Ethnic Divisions," Papers 536, Harvard - Institute for International Development.
  16. Alberto Alesina & Reza Baqir & William Easterly, 1997. "Public Goods and Ethnic Divisions," NBER Working Papers 6009, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  18. Alberto Alesina & Reza Baqir & William Easterly, 1999. "Public Goods and Ethnic Divisions," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(4), pages 1243-1284.
  19. Nicholas Sambanis, 2001. "Do Ethnic and Nonethnic Civil Wars Have the Same Causes?," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 45(3), pages 259-282, June.
  20. Alberto Alesina & Eliana La Ferrara, 2004. "Ethnic Diversity and Economic Performance," Development Working Papers 193, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano.
  21. Tanja Ellingsen, 2000. "Colorful Community or Ethnic Witches' Brew?," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 44(2), pages 228-249, April.
  22. Paul Collier & Anke Hoeffler, 2004. "Military Expenditure in Post-Conflict Societies," CSAE Working Paper Series 2004-13, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
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  25. Fearon, James D, 2003. "Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 8(2), pages 195-222, June.
  26. Sandler,Todd & Hartley,Keith, 1995. "The Economics of Defense," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521447287, November.
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