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The Long-Term Performance of IPO’s, Revisited

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  • Hoechle, Daniel

    ()

  • Karthaus, Larissa

    ()

  • Schmid, Markus

    ()

Abstract

The literature on IPO long-term performance generally focuses on three- to five-year post-issue time horizons. Research published in the 2000s shows that the apparent underperformance of IPOs docu-mented in the 1990s disappears when the different risk exposures between IPO and mature firms are accounted for by using a Carhart (1997) factor model. In this paper, we show that a sample of 7,487 U.S. IPOs between 1975 and 2014 continues to significantly underperform mature firms in terms of Carhart-alphas over two years, with underperformance peaking one year after going public. We apply a regression-based portfolio sorts approach (RPS), which allows to decompose the Carhart-alpha into firm-specific characteristics, to explain one-year IPO underperformance using a multitude of market and firm characteristics in a statistically robust setting. In fact, our RPS-model that augments the Carhart factors by a set of firm characteristics related to investments, internationality, liquidity, and leverage can explain IPO underperformance. We find similar results when using the Fama-French three-factor model or an augmented version of the Carhart model. We challenge our RPS-model by applying it to the most severely underperforming sub-samples in terms of firm size, time period, venture capital involvement, and IPO underpricing, and find it to explain IPO underperformance across all sub-samples.

Suggested Citation

  • Hoechle, Daniel & Karthaus, Larissa & Schmid, Markus, 2017. "The Long-Term Performance of IPO’s, Revisited," Working Papers on Finance 1706, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance.
  • Handle: RePEc:usg:sfwpfi:2017:06
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    IPO Underperformance; Long-Term Performance Evaluation; Time Horizon; Firm Characteristics;

    JEL classification:

    • G14 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies; Insider Trading
    • G24 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

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