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Job creation under liquidity constraints: The Spanish case

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  • Silvio Rendón

Abstract

This paper shows that liquidity constraints restrict job creation even when labor markets are flexible. In a dynamic model of labor demand, I show that in an environment of imperfect capital and imperfect labor markets, firms use temporary contracts to relax financial constraints. Evidence for the predictions of the model is presented using Spanish data from the CBBE (Central de Balances del Banco de España - Balance Sheet data from the Bank of Spain). It is shown that firms substitute temporary labor for permanent one and use less debt as their financial position improves. In particular, it is rejected that Spanish firms operate in an environment of free capital markets and of no labor adjustment costs. The labor reform of 1984, which created temporary contracts, implied to some extent a relaxation of liquidity constraints. Accordingly, firms used these contracts more extensively and used less debt; however, as capital markets continue to be imperfect, permanent job creation continues to be slow. Consequently, relaxation of liquidity constraints should also be part of a job creation strategy.

Suggested Citation

  • Silvio Rendón, 2000. "Job creation under liquidity constraints: The Spanish case," Economics Working Papers 488, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  • Handle: RePEc:upf:upfgen:488
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
    3. Tribo Gine, José Antonio & Hernando, Ignacio, 1999. "Relación entre contratos laborales y financieros: un estudio teórico y empírico para el caso español," DEE - Documentos de Trabajo. Economía de la Empresa. DB 6389, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía de la Empresa.
    4. Sangeeta Pratap & Silvio Rendon, 2003. "Firm Investment in Imperfect Capital Markets: A Structural Estimation," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 6(3), pages 513-545, July.
    5. Greenwald, Bruce & Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1984. "Informational Imperfections in the Capital Market and Macroeconomic Fluctuations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(2), pages 194-199, May.
    6. Victor Aguirregabiria & Cesar Alonso-Borrego, 2014. "Labor Contracts And Flexibility: Evidence From A Labor Market Reform In Spain," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 52(2), pages 930-957, April.
    7. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicolás S., 1945-, 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Working papers 1523-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    8. Caballero, Ricardo J., 1999. "Aggregate investment," Handbook of Macroeconomics,in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 12, pages 813-862 Elsevier.
    9. Alonso-Borrego, Cesar & Bentolila, Samuel, 1994. "Investment and Q in Spanish Manufacturing Firms," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 56(1), pages 49-65, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. José Ignacio García Pérez & Yolanda Rebollo Sanz, 2005. "A Structural Estimation to Evaluate the Wage Penalty after Unemployment in Europe," Economic Working Papers at Centro de Estudios Andaluces E2005/15, Centro de Estudios Andaluces.
    2. Raquel Fonseca & Natalia Utrero, 2005. "Financial Development, Labor and Market Regulations and Growth," Documents de recherche 05-05, Centre d'Études des Politiques Économiques (EPEE), Université d'Evry Val d'Essonne.
    3. Donatella Gatti & Anne-Gaël Vaubourg, 2009. "Unemployment and finance: how do financial and labour market factors interact?," Working Papers halshs-00566792, HAL.
    4. Rault, Christophe & Vaubourg, Anne-Gaël, 2011. "Labour Market Institutions and Unemployment: Does Finance Matter?," IZA Discussion Papers 5606, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Donatella Gatti & Christophe Rault & Anne-Gael Vaubourg, 2012. "Unemployment and finance: how do financial and labour market factors interact?," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(3), pages 464-489, July.
    6. repec:hal:psewpa:halshs-00566792 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Josep Tribo, 2005. "An analysis of the length of labour and financial contracts: a study for Spain," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(8), pages 905-916.
    8. Raquel Fonseca & Natalia Utrero González, 2004. "Do Market Regulation and Financial Imperfections Affect Firm Size? New Empirical Evidence," CSEF Working Papers 119, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Job creation; employment; investment; adjustment costs; liquidity constraints;

    JEL classification:

    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • J32 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits; Retirement Plans; Private Pensions
    • E22 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Investment; Capital; Intangible Capital; Capacity
    • G31 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Capital Budgeting; Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies

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