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Early International Entrepreneurship in China: Extent and Determinants

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  • Naude, Wim
  • Rossouw, Stephanie

Abstract

We use data on 3,948 Chinese firms obtained from the World Bank.s Investment Climate Private Enterprise Survey to investigate early international entrepreneurship (international new ventures) in China. The extent of early international entrepreneurship in China is significant: 65 per cent of the exporting firms start export operations within three years. Foreign shareholders within the firm and an entrepreneur with previous exporting experience are noted to significantly increase the probability that a firm internationalizes early. However, we find marked differences in the behaviour of indigenous and foreign-invested firms. Thus, while business networks are significant for firms wishing to export indirectly and for older indigenous firms, it is noted to delay the internationalization process of indigenous firms. Also, for an indigenous firm, the greater the foreign experience of its entrepreneur, the less likely it is to start exporting early.

Suggested Citation

  • Naude, Wim & Rossouw, Stephanie, 2009. "Early International Entrepreneurship in China: Extent and Determinants," WIDER Working Paper Series 016, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  • Handle: RePEc:unu:wpaper:rp2009-16
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Naudé, Wim & Amorós, José Ernesto & Cristi, Oscar, 2013. ""Romanticizing Penniless Entrepreneurs?" The Relationship between Start-Ups and Human Wellbeing across Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 7547, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Ciravegna, Luciano & Majano, Sara B. & Zhan, Ge, 2014. "The inception of internationalization of small and medium enterprises: The role of activeness and networks," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 67(6), pages 1081-1089.
    3. Naudé, Wim & Gries, Thomas & Bilkic, Natasa, 2015. "Playing the lottery or dressing up? A model of firm-level heterogeneity and the decision to export," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 1-17.
    4. Dirk Clercq & Lianxi Zhou & Aiqi Wu, 2016. "Unpacking the relationship between young ventures’ international learning effort and performance in the context of an emerging economy," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 47-66, March.
    5. Gries Thomas & Naude Wim, 2011. "Entrepreneurship, Structural Change and a Global Economic Crisis," Entrepreneurship Research Journal, De Gruyter, vol. 1(3), pages 1-43, July.
    6. repec:kap:jinten:v:15:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s10843-017-0207-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Brück, Tilman & Naudé, Wim & Verwimp, Philip, 2013. "Entrepreneurship and Violent Conflict in Developing Countries," WIDER Working Paper Series 028, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    8. Naudé, Wim & Matthee, Marianne, 2012. "Do Export Costs Matter in Determining Whether, When, and How Much African Firms Export?," Working Papers 38, JICA Research Institute.
    9. Brach, Juliane & Naudé, Wim, 2012. "International entrepreneurship and technological capabilities in the Middle East and North Africa," MERIT Working Papers 020, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    10. Noor Ismail & Olli Kuivalainen, 2015. "The effect of internal capabilities and external environment on small- and medium-sized enterprises’ international performance and the role of the foreign market scope: The case of the Malaysian halal," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 13(4), pages 418-451, December.
    11. repec:krk:eberjl:v:3:y:2015:i:2:p:41-52 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Naudé, Wim & Gries, Thomas & Bilkic, Natasa, 2013. "Firm-Level Heterogeneity and the Decision to Export: A Real Option Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 7346, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    13. repec:krk:eberjl:v:3:y:2015:i:2:p:53-64 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Muralidharan, Etayankara & Pathak, Saurav, 2017. "Informal institutions and international entrepreneurship," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 288-302.
    15. Wu, Aiqi & Voss, Hinrich, 2015. "When does absorptive capacity matter for international performance of firms? Evidence from China," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 344-351.
    16. José Ernesto Amorós & Rodrigo Basco & Gianni Romaní, 2016. "Determinants of early internationalization of new firms: the case of Chile," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 283-307, March.
    17. Wim Naudé & Marianne Matthee, 2011. "The impact of transport costs on new venture internationalisation," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 62-89, March.
    18. Ricky Y. K. Chan & Katherine H. Y. Ma, 2016. "Environmental Orientation of Exporting SMEs from an Emerging Economy: Its Antecedents and Consequences," Management International Review, Springer, vol. 56(5), pages 597-632, October.
    19. Jiatao Li, 2013. "The internationalization of entrepreneurial firms from emerging economies: The roles of institutional transitions and market opportunities," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 11(2), pages 158-171, June.
    20. Pearson, Joseph & Viviers, Wilma & Cuyvers, Ludo & Naudé, Wim, 2010. "Identifying export opportunities for South Africa in the southern engines: A DSM approach," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 345-359, August.
    21. Kiss, Andreea N. & Danis, Wade M. & Cavusgil, S. Tamer, 2012. "International entrepreneurship research in emerging economies: A critical review and research agenda," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 266-290.

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    Keywords

    entrepreneurship; internationalization; international new ventures; exports; China;

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