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Innovation and diffusion in risky industries under liability law: the case of “double-impact” innovations

  • Julien Jacob
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    We suggest a model of innovation and diffusion of a new technology in which two firms, one innovative and one non-innovative, undertake risky activities that are regulated by liability rules. One originality of this study is to consider the presence of a “double-impact” innovation, impacting both the cost of risk prevention and the probability of accident. We compare strict liability and negligence in terms of incentives to innovate, to adopt the new technology and to prevent the risk. We find that the type of innovation and the behavior of the Regulator play key roles: when the Regulator acts as a “leader”, a negligence rule is socially preferable if the innovation mainly impacts the cost of risk prevention. In other cases (Regulator as a “follower” and/or innovation with sufficiently high impact on the probability of accident), strict liability is preferable.

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    File URL: http://www.beta-umr7522.fr/productions/publications/2011/2011-24.pdf
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    Paper provided by Bureau d'Economie Théorique et Appliquée, UDS, Strasbourg in its series Working Papers of BETA with number 2011-24.

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    Date of creation: 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:ulp:sbbeta:2011-24
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    1. Fluet, Claude, 2010. "Liability rules under evidentiary uncertainty," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 1-9, March.
    2. Baumann, Florian & Friehe, Tim & Grechenig, Kristoffel, 2011. "A note on the optimality of (even more) incomplete strict liability," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 77-82, June.
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    5. Maryann Feldman, 1999. "The New Economics Of Innovation, Spillovers And Agglomeration: Areview Of Empirical Studies," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(1-2), pages 5-25.
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    7. Milliman, Scott R. & Prince, Raymond, 1989. "Firm incentives to promote technological change in pollution control," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 247-265, November.
    8. Fischer, Carolyn & Parry, Ian W. H. & Pizer, William A., 2003. "Instrument choice for environmental protection when technological innovation is endogenous," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 523-545, May.
    9. Endres, Alfred & Bertram, Regina, 2006. "The development of care technology under liability law," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 503-518, December.
    10. Carsten Helm & Anja Schöttner, 2008. "Subsidizing Technological Innovations in the Presence of R&D Spillovers," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 9, pages 339-353, 08.
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    13. John Hartwick, 1984. "Optimal R&D Levels When Firm J Benefits From Firm i's Inventive Activity," Working Papers 547, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
    14. Richard Nelson, 1962. "Introduction to "The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors"," NBER Chapters, in: The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors, pages 1-16 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Alfred Endres & Bianca Rundshagen & Regina Bertram, 2008. "Environmental Liability Law and Induced Technical Change: The Role of Spillovers," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 164(2), pages 254-279, June.
    16. Harold M. Groves, Chairman, Universities-National Bureau Committee for Economic Research, 1962. "The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number univ62-1, August.
    17. Maia David & Bernard Sinclair-Desgagné, 2010. "Pollution Abatement Subsidies and the Eco-Industry," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 45(2), pages 271-282, February.
    18. Endres, Alfred & Friehe, Tim, 2011. "Incentives to diffuse advanced abatement technology under environmental liability law," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 30-40, July.
    19. Thierry Burger-Helmchen & Laurence Frank, 2011. "La création de rentes : une approche par les compétences et capacités dynamiques," Working Papers of BETA 2011-01, Bureau d'Economie Théorique et Appliquée, UDS, Strasbourg.
    20. Shavell, S., 1986. "The judgment proof problem," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 45-58, June.
    21. Schwartz, Alan., 1984. "Products Liability, Corporate Structure and Bankruptcy: Toxic Substances and the Remote Risk Relationship," Working Papers 542, California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences.
    22. Giuseppe Dari-Mattiacci & Gerrit De Geest, 2005. "Judgment Proofness under Four Different Precaution Technologies," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 161(1), pages 38-, March.
    23. Downing, Paul B. & White, Lawrence J., 1986. "Innovation in pollution control," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 18-29, March.
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