IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Some Reflections on the Theory of the “Liquidity Trap”

We provide a formal definition of the “liquidity trap” (LT) according to which, a LT arises if a combination of high precautionary saving, low investment and stringent conditions for access to bank credit stemming from a high degree of liquidity preference make the sum of the “neutral” interest rate and the expected inflation rate fall short of the term/risk premium on long-term interest rates. We then compare the “New Consensus” (NC) in macroeconomics as expounded in Woodford (2003) and the Post-Keynesian (PK) approach regarding the causes of a LT. We argue that in the NC approach a LT is a phenomenon caused by unusually large transitory shocks that depress the “neutral” interest rate temporarily. By contrast, we argue that in the PK approach an economy may also exhibit a “structural” or long-lasting LT even in the absence of large adverse shocks. Finally, we discuss a number of theoretical issues recently raised in the rapidly growing literature on the LT.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://eprints.ucm.es/8586/1/0902.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales in its series Documentos de trabajo de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales with number 09-02.

as
in new window

Length: 43 pages
Date of creation: 2009
Handle: RePEc:ucm:doctra:09-02
Contact details of provider: Phone: +34 913942604
Fax: 913942531
Web page: http://economicasyempresariales.ucm.es/
Email:


More information through EDIRC

Order Information: Postal: Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales. Campus de Somosaguas, 28223 - POZUELO DE ALARCÓN (MADRID)
Web: https://economicasyempresariales.ucm.es/working-papers-ccee Email:


References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as
in new window


  1. Christopher D. Carroll, 2001. "A Theory of the Consumption Function, with and without Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(3), pages 23-45, Summer.
  2. Gary A. Dymski, 1992. "A "New View" of the Role of Banking Firms in Keynesian Monetary Theory," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 14(3), pages 311-320, April.
  3. Orphanides, Athanasios & Wieland, Volker, 2000. "Inflation zone targeting," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(7), pages 1351-1387, June.
  4. Philip Arestis & Malcolm Sawyer, 2006. "The nature and role of monetary policy when money is endogenous," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 30(6), pages 847-860, November.
  5. Franco Modigliani & Shi Larry Cao, 2004. "The Chinese Saving Puzzle and the Life-Cycle Hypothesis," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(1), pages 145-170, March.
  6. Evan F. Koenig, 1990. "Real Money Balances and the Timing of Consumption: An Empirical Investigation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 105(2), pages 399-425.
  7. Michael Mussa, 2000. "Summary panel: reflections on monetary policy at low inflation," Conference Series ; [Proceedings], Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, pages 1100-1106.
  8. Orphanides, Athanasios, 2004. "Monetary policy in deflation: the liquidity trap in history and practice," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 101-124, March.
  9. Charles Goodhart, 2007. "Whatever became of the Monetary Aggregates?," FMG Special Papers sp172, Financial Markets Group.
  10. Lavoie, Marc, 1996. "Horizontalism, Structuralism, Liquidity Preference and the Principle of Increasing Risk," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 43(3), pages 275-300, August.
  11. A. Michael Spence, 1977. "Entry, Capacity, Investment and Oligopolistic Pricing," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 8(2), pages 534-544, Autumn.
  12. Svensson, Lars-E-O, 2001. "The Zero Bound in an Open Economy: A Foolproof Way of Escaping from a Liquidity Trap," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 19(S1), pages 277-312, February.
  13. Tony Yates, 2004. "Monetary Policy and the Zero Bound to Interest Rates: A Review," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18, pages 427-481, 07.
  14. Mark Gertler & Jordi Gali & Richard Clarida, 1999. "The Science of Monetary Policy: A New Keynesian Perspective," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(4), pages 1661-1707, December.
  15. Nelson, Edward, 2002. "Direct effects of base money on aggregate demand: theory and evidence," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 687-708, May.
  16. Matthew Canzoneri & Robert Cumby & Behzad Diba & David López-Salido, 2008. "Monetary aggregates and liquidity in a neo-Wicksellian framework," Working Paper Research 141, National Bank of Belgium.
  17. Deaton, Angus, 1991. "Saving and Liquidity Constraints," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(5), pages 1221-1248, September.
  18. Takatoshi Ito & Frederic S. Mishkin, 2006. "Two Decades of Japanese Monetary Policy and the Deflation Problem," NBER Chapters,in: Monetary Policy with Very Low Inflation in the Pacific Rim, NBER-EASE, Volume 15, pages 131-202 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Bennett T. McCallum, 2000. "Theoretical analysis regarding a zero lower bound on nominal interest rates," Conference Series ; [Proceedings], Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, pages 870-935.
  20. Ben S. Bernanke & Vincent R. Reinhart, 2004. "Conducting Monetary Policy at Very Low Short-Term Interest Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(2), pages 85-90, May.
  21. Takeo Hoshi & Anil K. Kashyap, 2004. "Japan's Financial Crisis and Economic Stagnation," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(1), pages 3-26, Winter.
  22. Matthew Canzoneri & Robert Cumby & Behzad Diba & David Lãpez-Salido, 2008. "Monetary Aggregates and Liquidity in a Neo-Wicksellian Framework," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 40(8), pages 1667-1698, December.
  23. Jeffrey C. Fuhrer & Brian F. Madigan, 1997. "Monetary Policy When Interest Rates Are Bounded At Zero," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(4), pages 573-585, November.
  24. Philip Arestis & Malcolm Sawyer, 2008. "A critical reconsideration of the foundations of monetary policy in the new consensus macroeconomics framework," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 32(5), pages 761-779, September.
  25. Joanne Archibald & Leni Hunter, 2001. "What is the neutral real interest rate, and how can we use it?," Reserve Bank of New Zealand Bulletin, Reserve Bank of New Zealand, vol. 64, September.
  26. Harcourt,G. C., 1972. "Some Cambridge Controversies in the Theory of Capital," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521096720, October.
  27. Alan J. Auerbach & Maurice Obstfeld, 2005. "The Case for Open-Market Purchases in a Liquidity Trap," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(1), pages 110-137, March.
  28. repec:pri:cepsud:129blinder is not listed on IDEAS
  29. David L. Reifschneider & John C. Williams, 2000. "Three lessons for monetary policy in a low-inflation era," Conference Series ; [Proceedings], Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, pages 936-978.
  30. Carol Corrado & Joe Mattey, 1997. "Capacity Utilization," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(1), pages 151-167, Winter.
  31. Penny Neal, 1996. "Keynesian Uncertainty in Credit Markets," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 18(3), pages 397-418, April.
  32. Rowthorn, R E, 1977. "Conflict, Inflation and Money," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 1(3), pages 215-239, September.
  33. Ueda, Kazuo, 2000. "Japan's Experience with Zero Interest Rates: Summary Panel," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(4), pages 1107-1109, November.
  34. Laurence H. Meyer, 2001. "Does money matter?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue May, pages 1-16.
  35. Marvin Goodfriend, 2000. "Overcoming the zero bound on interest rate policy," Conference Series ; [Proceedings], Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, pages 1007-1057.
  36. Clouse James & Henderson Dale & Orphanides Athanasios & Small David H. & Tinsley P.A., 2003. "Monetary Policy When the Nominal Short-Term Interest Rate is Zero," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 3(1), pages 1-65, September.
  37. Sawyer, Malcolm C, 1982. "Collective Bargaining, Oligopoly and Macro-Economics," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 34(3), pages 428-448, November.
  38. Thomas F. Cargill & Michael M. Hutchison & Takatoshi Ito, 1997. "The Political Economy of Japanese Monetary Policy," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262032473, January.
  39. Paul Wells, 1983. "A Post Keynesian View of Liquidity Preference and the Demand for Money," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 5(4), pages 523-536, July.
  40. Nakatani, Takeshi & Skott, Peter, 2007. "Japanese growth and stagnation: A Keynesian perspective," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 306-332, September.
  41. C. Alan Garner, 1994. "Capacity utilization and U.S. inflation," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q IV, pages 5-21.
  42. Reifschneider, David & Willams, John C, 2000. "Three Lessons for Monetary Policy in a Low-Inflation Era," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(4), pages 936-966, November.
  43. Summers, Lawrence H, 1981. "Capital Taxation and Accumulation in a Life Cycle Growth Model," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(4), pages 533-544, September.
  44. Christopher D. Carroll, 1992. "The Buffer-Stock Theory of Saving: Some Macroeconomic Evidence," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 23(2), pages 61-156.
  45. Karl Brunner & Allan H. Meltzer, 1968. "Liquidity Traps for Money, Bank Credit, and Interest Rates," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 76, pages 1-1.
  46. Bryant, Ralph C, 2000. "Comment on Overcoming the Zero Bound on Interest Rate Policy," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(4), pages 1036-1050, November.
  47. Martin H. Wolfson, 1996. "A Post Keynesian Theory of Credit Rationing," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 18(3), pages 443-470, April.
  48. Bruce Greenwald & Joseph E. Stiglitz, 1993. "New and Old Keynesians," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 7(1), pages 23-44, Winter.
  49. Blinder, Alan S, 2000. "Monetary Policy at the Zero Lower Bound: Balancing the Risks: Summary Panel," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(4), pages 1093-1099, November.
  50. L. Randall Wray, 1992. "Commercial Banks, the Central Bank, and Endogenous Money," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 14(3), pages 297-310, April.
  51. Kazuo Ueda, 2000. "Summary panel: Japan's experience with zero interest rates," Conference Series ; [Proceedings], Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, pages 1107-1109.
  52. Gauti B. Eggertsson & Michael Woodford, 2003. "The Zero Bound on Interest Rates and Optimal Monetary Policy," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 34(1), pages 139-235.
  53. Taylor, John B., 1993. "Discretion versus policy rules in practice," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 195-214, December.
  54. Thomas I. Palley, 2000. "The Case for Positive Low Inflation: Some Financial Market Considerations with Special Attention to the Problems of Japan," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 26(3), pages 277-295, Summer.
  55. Vasco Cúrdia & Michael Woodford, 2008. "Credit frictions and optimal monetary policy," Working Paper Research 146, National Bank of Belgium.
  56. Alan S. Blinder, 2000. "Summary panel: monetary policy at the zero lower bound: balancing the risks," Conference Series ; [Proceedings], Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, pages 1093-1099.
  57. Mussa, Michael, 2000. "Reflections on Monetary Policy at Low Inflation: Summary Panel," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(4), pages 1100-1106, November.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ucm:doctra:09-02. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Águeda González Abad)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.