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The Nature and Role of Monetary Policy When Money Is Endogenous


  • Philip Arestis
  • Malcolm Sawyer


This paper considers the nature and role of monetary policy when money is envisaged as credit money endogenously created within the private sector (by the banking system). Monetary policy is now based in many countries on the setting (or targeting) of a key interest rate, such as the Central Bank discount rate. The amount of money in existence then arises from the interaction of the private sector and the banks, based on the demand to hold money and the willingness of banks to provide loans. Monetary policy has become closely linked with the targeting of the rate of inflation. In this paper we consider whether monetary policy is well-equipped to act as a counter-inflation policy and discuss the more general role of monetary policy in the context of the treatment of money as endogenous. Currently, two schools of thought view money as endogenous. One school has been labeled the "new consensus" and the other the Keynesian endogenous (bank) money approach. Significant differences exist between the two approaches; the most important of these, for the purposes of this paper, is in the way in which the endogeneity of money is viewed. Although monetary policy--essentially interest rate policy--appears to be the same in both schools of thought, it is not. In this paper we investigate the differing roles of monetary policy in these two schools.

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  • Philip Arestis & Malcolm Sawyer, 2003. "The Nature and Role of Monetary Policy When Money Is Endogenous," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_374, Levy Economics Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:lev:wrkpap:wp_374

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    Cited by:

    1. Eckhard Hein & Achim Truger, 2011. "Fiscal Policy in the Macroeconomic Policy Mix: A Critique of the New Consensus Model and a Comparison of Macroeconomic Policies in France, Germany, the UK and Sweden from a Post-Keynesian Perspective," Chapters,in: Credit, Money and Macroeconomic Policy, chapter 12 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    2. Alfonso Palacio Vera, 2009. "Some Reflections on the Theory of the “Liquidity Trap”," Documentos de trabajo de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales 09-02, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales.
    3. Eckhard Hein & Engelbert Stockhammer, 2010. "Macroeconomic Policy Mix, Employment and Inflation in a Post-Keynesian Alternative to the New Consensus Model," Review of Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(3), pages 317-354.
    4. Duccio Cavalieri, 2004. "On Some Equilibrium and Disequilibrium Theories of Endogenous Money: A Structuralist View," History of Economic Ideas, Fabrizio Serra Editore, Pisa - Roma, vol. 12(3), pages 51-83.
    5. Philip Arestis & Malcolm Sawyer, 2003. "Does the stock of money have any causal significance?," Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 56(225), pages 113-136.
    6. Eckhard Hein & Christian Schoder, 2011. "Interest rates, distribution and capital accumulation -- A post-Kaleckian perspective on the US and Germany," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(6), pages 693-723, November.
    7. Cendejas, José Luis & Castañeda, Juan E. & Muñoz, Félix-Fernando, 2014. "Business cycle, interest rate and money in the euro area: A common factor model," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 136-141.
    8. Daniela Magalhães Prates & Luiz Fernanda De Paula & Barbara Fritz, 2016. "Keynes At The Periphery: Currency Hierarchy And Challenges For Economic Policy In Emerging Economies," Anais do XLII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 42ndd Brazilian Economics Meeting] 110, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    9. Giuseppe Fontana, 2006. "The 'New Consensus' View of Monetary Policy: A New Wicksellian Connection?," European Journal of Economics and Economic Policies: Intervention, Edward Elgar Publishing, vol. 3(2), pages 263-278.
    10. Raberto, Marco & Teglio, Andrea & Cincotti, Silvano, 2012. "Debt, deleveraging and business cycles: An agent-based perspective," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 6, pages 1-49.
    11. Greg Hannsgen, 2007. "The Transmission Mechanism of Monetary Policy: A Critical Review," Chapters,in: A Handbook of Alternative Monetary Economics, chapter 13 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    12. Philip Arestis & Malcolm Sawyer, 2004. "Macroeconomic policies of the Economic and Monetary Union: theoretical underpinnings and challenges," Chapters,in: Neo-Liberal Economic Policy, chapter 7 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    13. M. Lopreite, 2012. "The endogenous money hypothesis and securitization: the Euro area case (1999-2010)," Economics Department Working Papers 2012-EP02, Department of Economics, Parma University (Italy).
    14. Olivier Allain, 2006. "La modération salariale : le point de vue des (néo-)kaleckiens," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00196500, HAL.
    15. María Cuenca Coral, Felipe Amaya, Bryan Castrillón, 2015. "La política monetaria y el crecimiento económico en Colombia, 1990-2010," REVISTA CIFE, UNIVERSIDAD SANTO TOMÁS, February.
    16. Alfonso Palacio Vera, 2008. "Money wage rigidity, monopoly power and hysteresis," Documentos de trabajo de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales 08-02, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales.
    17. repec:wsi:acsxxx:v:15:y:2012:i:supp0:n:s0219525912500403 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Andrea Teglio & Marco Raberto & Silvano Cincotti, 2012. "The Impact Of Banks' Capital Adequacy Regulation On The Economic System: An Agent-Based Approach," Advances in Complex Systems (ACS), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 15(supp0), pages 1-27.
    19. Robert Pollin & James Heintz, 2013. "Study of U.S. Financial System," FESSUD studies fstudy10, Financialisation, Economy, Society & Sustainable Development (FESSUD) Project.
    20. Jan Korda, 2010. "Komparace nového konsensu jako teoretického rámce cílování inflace s postkeynesovskou ekonomií
      [A Comparison of New Consensus as a Theoretical Framework of Inflation Targeting with Post-Keynesian E
      ," Politická ekonomie, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2010(1), pages 92-104.

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