On the middle 70%. The impact of fiscal policy on the emerging middle class in Latin America using Commitment to Equity
This paper analyzes the effects of indirect and direct taxes, as well as monetary and in-kind transfers on the income distribution in nine Latin American countries applying the CEQ methodology and using household and expenditure microdata around 2010. In particular, we focus on the effect of fiscal policies on two groups of the emerging middle class: the vulnerable and the middle class. We find that while the vulnerable tend to be net receivers in fiscal terms, especially when including in-kind transfers, the middle class seems to be mainly a net payer. This might be aggravated by the perception of a relatively low quality of in-kind transfers, notably in education and health-care services. We provide some evidence based on subjective surveys pointing in this direction.
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- Abhijit V. Banerjee & Esther Duflo, 2008.
"What Is Middle Class about the Middle Classes around the World?,"
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- Peter Lindert, 2004. "Social Spending and Economic Growth," Challenge, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 47(4), pages 6-16, July.
- Nora Lustig & Carola Pessino & John Scott, 2014. "The Impact of Taxes and Social Spending on Inequality and Poverty in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay," Public Finance Review, , vol. 42(3), pages 287-303, May.
- Nora Lustig & Florencia Amábile & Marisa Bucheli & George Gray Molina & Sean Higgins & Miguel Jaramillo & Wilson Jiménez Pozo & Veronica Paz Arauco & Claudiney Pereira & Carola Pessino & Máximo Rossi , 2013. "The impact of taxes and social spending on inequality and poverty in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay," Commitment to Equity (CEQ) Working Paper Series 13, Tulane University, Department of Economics, revised Aug 2013.
- Roberto Angulo & Alejandro Gaviria Uribe & Liliana Morales, 2014. "La década ganada: evolución de la clase media, la pobreza y la vulnerabilidad en Colombia 2002-2011," COYUNTURA ECONÓMICA, FEDESARROLLO, June.
- Nora Lustig & Sean Higgins, 2012. "Fiscal Incidence, Fiscal Mobility and the Poor: A New Approach," Working Papers 1202, Tulane University, Department of Economics.
- Nora Lustig & Sean Higgins, 2012. "Fiscal Incidence, Fiscal Mobility and the Poor: a New Approach," Working Papers 265, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
- Angel Melguizo, 2015. "Pensions, informality, and the emerging middle class," IZA World of Labor, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), pages 169-169, July.
- Melguizo, Angel & Bosch, Mariano & Pages, Carmen, 2017. "Better pensions, better jobs: status and alternatives toward universal pension coverage in Latin America and the Caribbean," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 16(02), pages 121-143, April.
- Alkire, Sabina & Foster, James & Seth, Suman & Santos, Maria Emma & Roche, Jose Manuel & Ballon, Paola, 2015. "Multidimensional Poverty Measurement and Analysis," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199689491. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
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