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On the middle 70%. The impact of fiscal policy on the emerging middle class in Latin America using Commitment to Equity

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  • Daude, Christian
  • Lustig, Nora
  • Melguizo, Angel
  • Perea, Jose Ramon

Abstract

This paper analyzes the effects of indirect and direct taxes, as well as monetary and in-kind transfers on the income distribution in nine Latin American countries applying the CEQ methodology and using household and expenditure microdata around 2010. In particular, we focus on the effect of fiscal policies on two groups of the emerging middle class: the vulnerable and the middle class. We find that while the vulnerable tend to be net receivers in fiscal terms, especially when including in-kind transfers, the middle class seems to be mainly a net payer. This might be aggravated by the perception of a relatively low quality of in-kind transfers, notably in education and health-care services. We provide some evidence based on subjective surveys pointing in this direction.

Suggested Citation

  • Daude, Christian & Lustig, Nora & Melguizo, Angel & Perea, Jose Ramon, 2017. "On the middle 70%. The impact of fiscal policy on the emerging middle class in Latin America using Commitment to Equity," Research Department working papers 1087, CAF Development Bank Of Latinamerica.
  • Handle: RePEc:dbl:dblwop:1087
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Roberto Angulo & Alejandro Gaviria Uribe & Liliana Morales, 2014. "La década ganada: evolución de la clase media, la pobreza y la vulnerabilidad en Colombia 2002-2011," Coyuntura Económica, Fedesarrollo, June.
    2. Nora Lustig & Sean Higgins, 2012. "Fiscal Incidence, Fiscal Mobility and the Poor: A New Approach," Working Papers 1202, Tulane University, Department of Economics.
    3. Abhijit V. Banerjee & Esther Duflo, 2008. "What Is Middle Class about the Middle Classes around the World?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 22(2), pages 3-28, Spring.
    4. Angel Melguizo, 2015. "Pensions, informality, and the emerging middle class," IZA World of Labor, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), pages 169-169, July.
    5. Melguizo, Angel & Bosch, Mariano & Pages, Carmen, 2017. "Better pensions, better jobs: status and alternatives toward universal pension coverage in Latin America and the Caribbean," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 16(02), pages 121-143, April.
    6. Easterly, William, 2001. "The Middle Class Consensus and Economic Development," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 6(4), pages 317-335, December.
    7. Peter Lindert, 2004. "Social Spending and Economic Growth," Challenge, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(4), pages 6-16.
    8. Alkire, Sabina & Foster, James & Seth, Suman & Santos, Maria Emma & Roche, Jose Manuel & Ballon, Paola, 2015. "Multidimensional Poverty Measurement and Analysis," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199689491.
    9. Nora Lustig & Carola Pessino & John Scott, 2014. "The Impact of Taxes and Social Spending on Inequality and Poverty in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay," Public Finance Review, , vol. 42(3), pages 287-303, May.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Desarrollo social; Economía; Impuestos; Investigación socioeconómica;

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • H22 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Incidence
    • H50 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - General
    • I30 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General

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