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Where do Innovations Come From? Transformations in the U.S. Economy, 1970-2006


  • Fred Block
  • Matthew R. Keller


This article brings to bear new data on the issue of structuring national innovation systems. Drawing on a unique data set of prize winning innovations between 1971 and 2006, we document three key changes in the U.S. economy. The first is an expanding role of interorganizational collaborations in producing award winning innovations. The second is the diminishing role of the largest corporations as sources of innovation. The third is the expanded role of public institutions and public funding in the innovation process. This leads us to the surprising conclusion that the U.S. increasingly resembles a Developmental Network State in which government initiatives are critical in overcoming network failures and in providing critical funding for the innovation process. The paper concludes by addressing the implications of these finding for debates over the appropriate regime for intellectual property rights.

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  • Fred Block & Matthew R. Keller, 2011. "Where do Innovations Come From? Transformations in the U.S. Economy, 1970-2006," The Other Canon Foundation and Tallinn University of Technology Working Papers in Technology Governance and Economic Dynamics 35, TUT Ragnar Nurkse School of Innovation and Governance.
  • Handle: RePEc:tth:wpaper:35

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    1. Taylor, Mark Zachary, 2004. "Empirical Evidence Against Varieties of Capitalism's Theory of Technological Innovation," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 58(03), pages 601-631, July.
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