IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/swe/wpaper/2013-33.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Distributional Effects of the Australian Renewable Energy Target (RET) through Wholesale and Retail Electricity Price Impacts

Author

Listed:
  • Johanna Cludiud

    () (School of Economics, Australian School of Business, the University of New South Wales)

  • Sam Forrest

    (Centre for Energy and Environmental Markets, the University of New South Wales)

  • Iain MacGill

    (School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications and Centre for Energy and Environmental Markets, the University of New South Wales)

Abstract

The Australian Renewable Energy Target (RET) has spurred considerable investment in renewable electricity generation, notably wind power, over the past decade. This paper considers the distributional implications of the RET for different electricity customers. Using time-series regression, we show that the increasing amount of wind energy fed into the NEM has placed a considerable downward pressure on wholesale electricity prices through the so-called merit order effect. On the other hand, costs of the RET are passed on to consumers in the form of retail electricity price premiums imposed by the retailers who are liable parties under the scheme. Potential complexities for the analysis include the many drivers of wholesale price outcomes, the mix of regulated and competitive retail tariffs on offer in Australia, and the partial RET exemptions given to energy-intensive trade-exposed industries. Nevertheless, our findings highlight likely significant redistributive transfers between different energy user classes under current RET arrangements. In particular, some energy-intensive industries are benefiting from lower wholesale electricity prices whilst being largely exempted from contributing to the costs of the scheme. By contrast, many households are paying significant RET pass-through costs whilst not necessarily benefiting from lower wholesale prices. A more equitable distribution of RET costs and benefits could be achieved by reviewing the scope and extent of industry exemptions from the RET and ensuring regulators apply methodologies to estimate wholesale price components in regulated electricity tariffs that reflect more closely actual market conditions. More generally, these findings support the growing international appreciation that policy makers need to better integrate distributional assessments into policy design and implementation.

Suggested Citation

  • Johanna Cludiud & Sam Forrest & Iain MacGill, 2013. "Distributional Effects of the Australian Renewable Energy Target (RET) through Wholesale and Retail Electricity Price Impacts," Discussion Papers 2013-33, School of Economics, The University of New South Wales.
  • Handle: RePEc:swe:wpaper:2013-33
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://research.economics.unsw.edu.au/RePEc/papers/2013-33.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Würzburg, Klaas & Labandeira, Xavier & Linares, Pedro, 2013. "Renewable generation and electricity prices: Taking stock and new evidence for Germany and Austria," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(S1), pages 159-171.
    2. Karsten Neuhoff & Stefan Bach & Jochen Diekmann & Martin Beznoska & Tarik El-Laboudy, 2013. "Distributional Effects of Energy Transition: Impacts of Renewable Electricity Support in Germany," Economics of Energy & Environmental Policy, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1).
    3. Gelabert, Liliana & Labandeira, Xavier & Linares, Pedro, 2011. "An ex-post analysis of the effect of renewables and cogeneration on Spanish electricity prices," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(S1), pages 59-65.
    4. Nelson, Tim & Nelson, James & Ariyaratnam, Jude & Camroux, Simon, 2013. "An analysis of Australia's large scale renewable energy target: Restoring market confidence," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 386-400.
    5. Hirth, Lion & Ueckerdt, Falko, 2013. "Redistribution effects of energy and climate policy: The electricity market," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 934-947.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Cludius, Johanna & Forrest, Sam & MacGill, Iain, 2014. "Distributional effects of the Australian Renewable Energy Target (RET) through wholesale and retail electricity price impacts," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 40-51.
    2. Cludius, Johanna & Hermann, Hauke & Matthes, Felix Chr. & Graichen, Verena, 2014. "The merit order effect of wind and photovoltaic electricity generation in Germany 2008–2016: Estimation and distributional implications," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 302-313.
    3. Figueiredo, Nuno Carvalho & Silva, Patrícia Pereira da, 2019. "The “Merit-order effect” of wind and solar power: Volatility and determinants," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 54-62.
    4. Csereklyei, Zsuzsanna & Qu, Songze & Ancev, Tihomir, 2019. "The effect of wind and solar power generation on wholesale electricity prices in Australia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 131(C), pages 358-369.
    5. Manuel Frondel & Stephan Sommer & Colin Vance, 2015. "The burden of Germanyùs energy transition: An empirical analysis of distributional effects," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(c), pages 89-99.
    6. Thao Pham & Killian Lemoine, 2020. "Impacts of subsidized renewable electricity generation on spot market prices in Germany : Evidence from a GARCH model with panel data," Working Papers hal-02568268, HAL.
    7. Trujillo-Baute, Elisa & del Río, Pablo & Mir-Artigues, Pere, 2018. "Analysing the impact of renewable energy regulation on retail electricity prices," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 153-164.
    8. Denny, Eleanor & O'Mahoney, Amy & Lannoye, Eamonn, 2017. "Modelling the impact of wind generation on electricity market prices in Ireland: An econometric versus unit commitment approach," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 109-119.
    9. Browne, Oliver & Poletti, Stephen & Young, David, 2015. "How does market power affect the impact of large scale wind investment in 'energy only' wholesale electricity markets?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 17-27.
    10. Mehtap Kilic & Elisa Trujillo-Baute, 2014. "The stabilizing effect of hydro reservoir levels on intraday power prices under wind forecast errors," Working Papers 2014/30, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB).
    11. Daron Acemoglu, Ali Kakhbod, and Asuman Ozdaglar, 2017. "Competition in Electricity Markets with Renewable Energy Sources," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(KAPSARC S).
    12. Abrell, Jan & Kosch, Mirjam & Rausch, Sebastian, 2019. "Carbon abatement with renewables: Evaluating wind and solar subsidies in Germany and Spain," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 169(C), pages 172-202.
    13. Di Cosmo, Valeria & Malaguzzi Valeri, Laura, 2018. "Wind, storage, interconnection and the cost of electricity generation," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 1-18.
    14. Gürtler, Marc & Paulsen, Thomas, 2018. "The effect of wind and solar power forecasts on day-ahead and intraday electricity prices in Germany," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 150-162.
    15. Gugler, Klaus & Haxhimusa, Adhurim, 2019. "Market integration and technology mix: Evidence from the German and French electricity markets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 126(C), pages 30-46.
    16. Bublitz, Andreas & Keles, Dogan & Fichtner, Wolf, 2017. "An analysis of the decline of electricity spot prices in Europe: Who is to blame?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 323-336.
    17. Bell, William Paul & Wild, Phillip & Foster, John & Hewson, Michael, 2017. "Revitalising the wind power induced merit order effect to reduce wholesale and retail electricity prices in Australia," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 224-241.
    18. Odeh, Rodrigo Pérez & Watts, David, 2019. "Impacts of wind and solar spatial diversification on its market value: A case study of the Chilean electricity market," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 111(C), pages 442-461.
    19. Unteutsch, Michaela, 2014. "Who Benefits from Cooperation? - A Numerical Analysis of Redistribution Effects Resulting from Cooperation in European RES-E Support," EWI Working Papers 2014-2, Energiewirtschaftliches Institut an der Universitaet zu Koeln (EWI).
    20. Macedo, Daniela Pereira & Marques, António Cardoso & Damette, Olivier, 2020. "The impact of the integration of renewable energy sources in the electricity price formation: is the Merit-Order Effect occurring in Portugal?," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Renewable energy; Electricity market; Distributional effects;
    All these keywords.

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:swe:wpaper:2013-33. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Hongyi Li). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/senswau.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.