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Economies urbaines et productivite

Listed author(s):
  • Baldwin, John R.
  • Beckstead, Desmond
  • Brown, W. Mark
  • Rigby, David

La variation spatiale des niveaux de productivite et des taux de croissance de la productivite est considerable. Les ecarts les plus prononces sont peut etre ceux observes entre pays, mais des differences demeurent fort evidentes dans les espaces nationaux, car la croissance economique favorise certaines villes et regions plus que d'autres. Dans le present document, nous dressons la carte de la variation spatiale des niveaux de productivite d'une ville canadienne a l'autre et nous modelisons les determinants sous jacents de cette variation. Nous poursuivons deux grands objectifs. En premier lieu, nous cherchons a confirmer l'existence, la nature et la taille des economies d'agglomeration, c'est a dire les gains d'efficacite associes au regroupement spatial de l'activite economique. Nous nous concentrons sur les effets des reseaux acheteurs-fournisseurs, des reservoirs de main d'oeuvre et des externalites de connaissances. En deuxieme lieu, nous determinons la portee geographique des externalites de connaissances en utilisant l'information sur l'emplacement des etablissements manufacturiers individuels. L'analyse porte sur les donnees au niveau de l'etablissement produites par la Division de l'analyse microeconomique de Statistique Canada. Si l'on neutralise l'effet d'une serie de caracteristiques des etablissements et des entreprises, l'analyse revele que la productivite des etablissements est influencee positivement par chacun des trois mecanismes d'agglomeration enonces par Marshall (1920). Elle indique aussi que l'effet des externalites de connaissances sur la productivite est spatialement circonscrit, puisqu'il se propage dans un rayon de 10 km au plus autour des etablissements individuels. Le recours des entreprises individuelles aux economies de localisation varie selon les secteurs auxquels les entreprises sont agregees. Ces secteurs sont definis en fonction des facteurs qui influent sur le processus de concurrence, a savoir l'acces aux ressources naturelles, le cout de la main d'oeuvre, les economies d'echelle, la differenciation des produits et l'application des connaissances scientifiques. Les reservoirs de main d'oeuvre, les reseaux acheteurs fournisseurs et les externalites de connaissances ne sont pas universellement importants dans tous les secteurs. Le present document confirme l'importance de l'agglomeration, tout en donnant des preuves que les economies externes sont spatialement limitees et n'ont pas la meme importance dans toutes les industries.

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Paper provided by Statistics Canada, Direction des etudes analytiques in its series Serie de documents de recherche sur l'analyse economique (AE) with number 2007045f.

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Date of creation: 18 Jun 2007
Handle: RePEc:stc:stcp5f:2007045f
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