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Economies urbaines et productivite

  • Brown, W. Mark
  • Rigby, David
  • Beckstead, Desmond
  • Baldwin, John R.

La variation spatiale des niveaux de productivite et des taux de croissance de la productivite est considerable. Les ecarts les plus prononces sont peut etre ceux observes entre pays, mais des differences demeurent fort evidentes dans les espaces nationaux, car la croissance economique favorise certaines villes et regions plus que d'autres. Dans le present document, nous dressons la carte de la variation spatiale des niveaux de productivite d'une ville canadienne a l'autre et nous modelisons les determinants sous jacents de cette variation. Nous poursuivons deux grands objectifs. En premier lieu, nous cherchons a confirmer l'existence, la nature et la taille des economies d'agglomeration, c'est a dire les gains d'efficacite associes au regroupement spatial de l'activite economique. Nous nous concentrons sur les effets des reseaux acheteurs-fournisseurs, des reservoirs de main d'oeuvre et des externalites de connaissances. En deuxieme lieu, nous determinons la portee geographique des externalites de connaissances en utilisant l'information sur l'emplacement des etablissements manufacturiers individuels. L'analyse porte sur les donnees au niveau de l'etablissement produites par la Division de l'analyse microeconomique de Statistique Canada. Si l'on neutralise l'effet d'une serie de caracteristiques des etablissements et des entreprises, l'analyse revele que la productivite des etablissements est influencee positivement par chacun des trois mecanismes d'agglomeration enonces par Marshall (1920). Elle indique aussi que l'effet des externalites de connaissances sur la productivite est spatialement circonscrit, puisqu'il se propage dans un rayon de 10 km au plus autour des etablissements individuels. Le recours des entreprises individuelles aux economies de localisation varie selon les secteurs auxquels les entreprises sont agregees. Ces secteurs sont definis en fonction des facteurs qui influent sur le processus de concurrence, a savoir l'acces aux ressources naturelles, le cout de la main d'oeuvre, les economies d'echelle, la differenciation des produits et l'application des connaissances scientifiques. Les reservoirs de main d'oeuvre, les reseaux acheteurs fournisseurs et les externalites de connaissances ne sont pas universellement importants dans tous les secteurs. Le present document confirme l'importance de l'agglomeration, tout en donnant des preuves que les economies externes sont spatialement limitees et n'ont pas la meme importance dans toutes les industries.

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Paper provided by Statistics Canada, Direction des etudes analytiques in its series Serie de documents de recherche sur l'analyse economique (AE) with number 2007045f.

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Date of creation: 18 Jun 2007
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Handle: RePEc:stc:stcp5f:2007045f
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Web page: http://www.statcan.gc.ca

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  1. Jaffe, Adam B & Trajtenberg, Manuel & Henderson, Rebecca, 1993. "Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 108(3), pages 577-98, August.
  2. Ciccone, Antonio & Hall, Robert E, 1996. "Productivity and the Density of Economic Activity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(1), pages 54-70, March.
  3. Gilles Duranton & Diego Puga, 1999. "Diversity and Specialisation in Cities: Why, Where and When does it Matter?," CEP Discussion Papers dp0433, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  4. Lucia Foster & John C. Haltiwanger & C. J. Krizan, 2001. "Aggregate Productivity Growth. Lessons from Microeconomic Evidence," NBER Chapters, in: New Developments in Productivity Analysis, pages 303-372 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Moomaw, Ronald L., 1983. "Is population scale a worthless surrogate for business agglomeration economies?," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 525-545, November.
  6. Kim McCoy & Ronald L. Moomaw, 1995. "Determinants Of Manufacturing Efficiency In Canadian Cities: A Stochastic Frontier Approach," The Review of Regional Studies, Southern Regional Science Association, vol. 25(3), pages 317-330, Winter.
  7. W P Anderson, 1990. "Labour productivity growth in Canadian manufacturing: a regional analysis," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 22(3), pages 309-320, March.
  8. Guy Dumais & Glenn Ellison & Edward L Glaeser, 1998. "Geographic Concentration as a Dynamic Process," Working Papers 98-3, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  9. J. Vernon Henderson & Ari Kuncoro & Matthew Turner, 1992. "Industrial Development in Cities," NBER Working Papers 4178, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Edward L. Glaeser & Hedi D. Kallal & Jose A. Scheinkman & Andrei Shleifer, 1991. "Growth in Cities," NBER Working Papers 3787, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    • Glaeser, Edward Ludwig & Kallal, Hedi D. & Scheinkman, Jose A. & Shleifer, Andrei, 1992. "Growth in Cities," Scholarly Articles 3451309, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  11. Rosenthal, Stuart S. & Strange, William C., 2001. "The Determinants of Agglomeration," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 191-229, September.
  12. David L. Rigby & J¸rgen Essletzbichler, 2002. "Agglomeration economies and productivity differences in US cities," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 2(4), pages 407-432, October.
  13. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-37, October.
  14. Mark Doms & Eric J. Bartelsman, 2000. "Understanding Productivity: Lessons from Longitudinal Microdata," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(3), pages 569-594, September.
  15. Gu, Wulong & Baldwin, John R., 2006. "Les repercussions du commerce sur la taille des usines, la duree des cycles de production et la diversification," Serie de documents de recherche sur l'analyse economique (AE) 2006038f, Statistics Canada, Direction des etudes analytiques.
  16. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521633574 is not listed on IDEAS
  17. Stuart S. Rosenthal & William C. Strange, 2003. "Geography, Industrial Organization, and Agglomeration," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 56, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
  18. W. Mark Brown & William P. Anderson, 2002. "articles: Spatial markets and the potential for economic integration between Canadian and U.S. regions," Papers in Regional Science, Springer, vol. 81(1), pages 99-120.
  19. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521465618 is not listed on IDEAS
  20. Patricia Beeson & Stephen Husted, 1986. "Patterns and determinants of inefficiency in state manufacturing," Working Paper 8603, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
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