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Economies urbaines et productivite

  • Brown, W. Mark
  • Rigby, David
  • Beckstead, Desmond
  • Baldwin, John R.

La variation spatiale des niveaux de productivite et des taux de croissance de la productivite est considerable. Les ecarts les plus prononces sont peut etre ceux observes entre pays, mais des differences demeurent fort evidentes dans les espaces nationaux, car la croissance economique favorise certaines villes et regions plus que d'autres. Dans le present document, nous dressons la carte de la variation spatiale des niveaux de productivite d'une ville canadienne a l'autre et nous modelisons les determinants sous jacents de cette variation. Nous poursuivons deux grands objectifs. En premier lieu, nous cherchons a confirmer l'existence, la nature et la taille des economies d'agglomeration, c'est a dire les gains d'efficacite associes au regroupement spatial de l'activite economique. Nous nous concentrons sur les effets des reseaux acheteurs-fournisseurs, des reservoirs de main d'oeuvre et des externalites de connaissances. En deuxieme lieu, nous determinons la portee geographique des externalites de connaissances en utilisant l'information sur l'emplacement des etablissements manufacturiers individuels. L'analyse porte sur les donnees au niveau de l'etablissement produites par la Division de l'analyse microeconomique de Statistique Canada. Si l'on neutralise l'effet d'une serie de caracteristiques des etablissements et des entreprises, l'analyse revele que la productivite des etablissements est influencee positivement par chacun des trois mecanismes d'agglomeration enonces par Marshall (1920). Elle indique aussi que l'effet des externalites de connaissances sur la productivite est spatialement circonscrit, puisqu'il se propage dans un rayon de 10 km au plus autour des etablissements individuels. Le recours des entreprises individuelles aux economies de localisation varie selon les secteurs auxquels les entreprises sont agregees. Ces secteurs sont definis en fonction des facteurs qui influent sur le processus de concurrence, a savoir l'acces aux ressources naturelles, le cout de la main d'oeuvre, les economies d'echelle, la differenciation des produits et l'application des connaissances scientifiques. Les reservoirs de main d'oeuvre, les reseaux acheteurs fournisseurs et les externalites de connaissances ne sont pas universellement importants dans tous les secteurs. Le present document confirme l'importance de l'agglomeration, tout en donnant des preuves que les economies externes sont spatialement limitees et n'ont pas la meme importance dans toutes les industries.

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Paper provided by Statistics Canada, Direction des etudes analytiques in its series Serie de documents de recherche sur l'analyse economique (AE) with number 2007045f.

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Date of creation: 18 Jun 2007
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Handle: RePEc:stc:stcp5f:2007045f
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  1. Gu, Wulong & Baldwin, John R., 2006. "Les repercussions du commerce sur la taille des usines, la duree des cycles de production et la diversification," Serie de documents de recherche sur l'analyse economique (AE) 2006038f, Statistics Canada, Direction des etudes analytiques.
  2. Eric J. Bartelsman & Mark Doms, 2000. "Understanding productivity: lessons from longitudinal microdata," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2000-19, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  3. Glaeser, Edward Ludwig & Kallal, Hedi D. & Scheinkman, Jose A. & Shleifer, Andrei, 1992. "Growth in Cities," Scholarly Articles 3451309, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  4. W P Anderson, 1990. "Labour productivity growth in Canadian manufacturing: a regional analysis," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 22(3), pages 309-320, March.
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  7. Rosenthal, Stuart S. & Strange, William C., 2001. "The Determinants of Agglomeration," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 191-229, September.
  8. Kim McCoy & Ronald L. Moomaw, 1995. "Determinants Of Manufacturing Efficiency In Canadian Cities: A Stochastic Frontier Approach," The Review of Regional Studies, Southern Regional Science Association, vol. 25(3), pages 317-330, Winter.
  9. Antonio Ciccone & Robert E. Hall, 1993. "Productivity and the Density of Economic Activity," NBER Working Papers 4313, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Stuart S. Rosenthal & William C. Strange, 1999. "Geography, Industrial Organization, and Agglomeration," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 14, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
  11. Gilles Duranton & Diego Puga, 1999. "Diversity and specialisation in cities: why, where and when does it matter?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 20212, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  12. Patricia E. Beeson & Steven Husted, 1986. "Patterns and determinants of inefficiency in state manufacturing," Working Paper 8603, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  13. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-37, October.
  14. Guy Dumais & Glenn Ellison & Edward L Glaeser, 1998. "Geographic Concentration as a Dynamic Process," Working Papers 98-3, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  15. Lucia Foster & John C. Haltiwanger & C. J. Krizan, 2001. "Aggregate Productivity Growth. Lessons from Microeconomic Evidence," NBER Chapters, in: New Developments in Productivity Analysis, pages 303-372 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. J. Vernon Henderson & Ari Kuncoro & Matthew Turner, 1992. "Industrial Development in Cities," NBER Working Papers 4178, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Moomaw, Ronald L., 1983. "Is population scale a worthless surrogate for business agglomeration economies?," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 525-545, November.
  18. David L. Rigby & J¸rgen Essletzbichler, 2002. "Agglomeration economies and productivity differences in US cities," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 2(4), pages 407-432, October.
  19. W P Anderson, 1990. "Labour Productivity Growth in Canadian Manufacturing: A Regional Analysis," Environment and Planning A, SAGE Publishing, vol. 22(3), pages 309-320, March.
  20. W. Mark Brown & William P. Anderson, 2002. "articles: Spatial markets and the potential for economic integration between Canadian and U.S. regions," Papers in Regional Science, Springer;Regional Science Association International, vol. 81(1), pages 99-120.
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