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Horizontal inequity under a dual income tax system: principles and measurement

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Tax systems with separate taxation of wage and capital income, also called dual income tax systems, have gained relevance through the Mirrlees Review. Obviously, such tax systems are exposed to horizontal equity (HE) failures, or horizontal inequity (HI). HE and HI have a firm grip on assessment of fair tax policies, both from an academic point of view and in general public debate. The dual income tax system of Norway was modified by the tax reform of 2006 precisely because the previous schedule failed to deliver equal tax treatment of equals. This paper discusses the meaning and measurement of HI effects of dual income tax systems, and evaluates the development of HI for Norway over the time period 2000-2008 using micro data. A copula-based identification strategy efficiently establishes a framework for evaluations of HI over time. The dual income tax system and the early announcement of its impending revision during the period under examination created measurement problems which we had to account for by defining a new income concept for the empirical strategy. As expected, we find less HI in Norway after the reform of 2006.

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  • Erlend E. Bø & Peter J. Lambert & Thor O. Thoresen, 2011. "Horizontal inequity under a dual income tax system: principles and measurement," Discussion Papers 647, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:ssb:dispap:647
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    Cited by:

    1. Arnaldur Kristjánsson & Peter Lambert, 2015. "Structural progression measures for dual income tax systems," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 13(1), pages 1-15, March.
    2. Carlos Díaz Caro & Jorge Onrubia Fernández & Jesús Pérez Mayo, 2013. "Progresividad y redistribución por fuentes de renta en el IRPF dual," Hacienda Pública Española, IEF, vol. 206(3), pages 57-87, September.
    3. Lambert Peter J. & Thoresen Thor O., 2012. "The Inequality Effects of a Dual Income Tax System," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 12(1), pages 1-17, July.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Dual income tax; Horizontal inequity; Reranking; Copula estimation;

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • H31 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents - - - Household

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