IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/lvl/lacicr/0306.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Classical Horizontal Inequity and Reranking: an Integrating Approach

Author

Listed:
  • Duclos, Jean-Yves
  • Jalbert, Vincent
  • Araar, Abdelkrim

Abstract

The last 20 years have seen a significant evolution in the literature on horizontal inequity (HI) and have generated two major and "rival" methodological strands, namely, classical HI and reranking. We propose in this paper a class of ethically flexible tools that integrate these two strands. This is achieved using a measure of inequality that merges the well-known Gini coefficient and Atkinson indices, and that allows a decomposition of the total redistributive effect of taxes and transfers into a vertical equity effect and a loss of redistribution due to either classical HI or reranking. An inequality-change approach and a money-metric cost-of-inequality approach are developed. The latter approach makes aggregate classical HI decomposable across groups. As in recent work, equals are identified through a nonparametric estimation of the joint density of gross and net incomes. An illustration using Canadian data from 1981 to 1994 shows a substantial, and increasing, robust erosion of redistribution attributable both to classical HI and to reranking, but does not reveal which of reranking or classical HI is more important since this requires a judgement that is fundamentally normative in nature.

Suggested Citation

  • Duclos, Jean-Yves & Jalbert, Vincent & Araar, Abdelkrim, 2003. "Classical Horizontal Inequity and Reranking: an Integrating Approach," Cahiers de recherche 0306, CIRPEE.
  • Handle: RePEc:lvl:lacicr:0306
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.cirpee.org/fileadmin/documents/Cahiers_2003/CIRPEE03-06.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Duclos, Jean-Yves, 1995. "Assessing the Performance of an Income Tax," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(2), pages 115-126, April.
    2. Russell Davidson & Jean-Yves Duclos, 1997. "Statistical Inference for the Measurement of the Incidence of Taxes and Transfers," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(6), pages 1453-1466, November.
    3. Lerman, Robert I. & Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 1995. "Changing Ranks and the Inequality Impacts of Taxes and Transfers," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 48(1), pages 45-59, March.
    4. DUCLOS, Jean-Yves, 1994. "On Equity Aspects of Imperfect Income Redistribution," Cahiers de recherche 9415, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
    5. Kaplow, Louis, 1995. "A Fundamental Objection to Tax Equity Norms: A Call for Utilitarianism," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 48(4), pages 497-514, December.
    6. Satya R. Chakravarty & Conchita D'Ambrosio, 2006. "The Measurement Of Social Exclusion," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 52(3), pages 377-398, September.
    7. Duclos, Jean-Yves, 1995. "On Equity Aspects of Imperfect Income Distribution," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 41(2), pages 177-190, June.
    8. Jenkins, Stephen P., 1988. "Empirical measurement of horizontal inequity," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 305-329, December.
    9. Balcer, Yves & Sadka, Efraim, 1986. "Equivalence scales, horizontal equity and optimal taxation under utilitarianism," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 79-97, February.
    10. Porath Elchanan Ben & Gilboa Itzhak, 1994. "Linear Measures, the Gini Index, and The Income-Equality Trade-off," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 443-467, December.
    11. Claudio Zoli, 1999. "Intersecting generalized Lorenz curves and the Gini index," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer;The Society for Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 16(2), pages 183-196.
    12. Kaplow, Louis, 1989. "Horizontal Equity: Measures in Search of a Principle," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 42(2), pages 139-54, June.
    13. Stiglitz, Joseph E., 1982. "Utilitarianism and horizontal equity : The case for random taxation," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 1-33, June.
    14. Donaldson, David & Weymark, John A., 1983. "Ethically flexible gini indices for income distributions in the continuum," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 353-358, April.
    15. Lerman, Robert I. & Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 1995. "Changing Ranks and the Inequality Impacts of Taxes and Transfers," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 48(1), pages 45-59, March.
    16. Peter Lambert & Xavier Ramos, 1997. "Horizontal Inequity and Vertical Redistribution," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 4(1), pages 25-37, January.
    17. Kakwani, Nanok C, 1977. "Measurement of Tax Progressivity: An International Comparison," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 87(345), pages 71-80, March.
    18. Mehran, Farhad, 1976. "Linear Measures of Income Inequality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 44(4), pages 805-809, July.
    19. Valentino Dardanoni & Peter Lambert, 2001. "Horizontal inequity comparisons," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer;The Society for Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 18(4), pages 799-816.
    20. Charles Blackorby & David Donaldson, 1984. "Ethical Social Index Numbers and the Measurement of Effective Tax-Benefit Progressivity," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 17(4), pages 683-694, November.
    21. Berrebi, Z. M. & Silber, Jacques, 1981. "Weighting income ranks and levels : A Multiple-Parameter Generalization For Absolute and Relative Inequality Indices," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 391-397.
    22. Feldstein, Martin, 1976. "On the theory of tax reform," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1-2), pages 77-104.
    23. Aronson, J Richard & Johnson, Paul & Lambert, Peter J, 1994. "Redistributive Effects and Unequal Income Tax Treatment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 104(423), pages 262-270, March.
    24. Mervyn A. King, 1980. "An Index of Inequality: With Applications to Horizontal Equity and Social Mobility," NBER Working Papers 0468, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    25. Pfahler, Wilhelm, 1987. "Redistributive Effects of Tax Progressivity: Evaluating a General Class of Aggregate Measures," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 42(1), pages 1-31.
    26. Plotnick, Robert, 1982. "The concept and measurement of horizontal inequity," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 373-391, April.
    27. Kakwani, Nanak, 1980. "On a Class of Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(2), pages 437-446, March.
    28. Yaari, Menahem E., 1988. "A controversial proposal concerning inequality measurement," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 381-397, April.
    29. Duclos, Jean-Yves, 1997. "The asymptotic distribution of linear indices of inequality, progressivity and redistribution," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 51-57, January.
    30. Duclos, Jean-Yves, 1993. "Progressivity, Redistribution, and Equity, with Application to the British Tax and Benefit System," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 48(3), pages 350-365.
    31. Donaldson, David & Weymark, John A., 1980. "A single-parameter generalization of the Gini indices of inequality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 67-86, February.
    32. King, Mervyn A, 1983. "An Index of Inequality: With Applications to Horizontal Equity and Social Mobility," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(1), pages 99-115, January.
    33. Kaplow, Louis, 1995. "A Fundamental Objection to Tax Equity Norms: A Call for Utilitarianism," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 48(4), pages 497-514, December.
    34. Jean-Yves Duclos & Peter J. Lambert, 2000. "A normative and statistical approach to measuring classical horizontal inequity," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 33(1), pages 87-113, February.
    35. Jean-Yves Duclos, 2000. "Gini Indices and the Redistribution of Income," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 7(2), pages 141-162, March.
    36. Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 1983. "On an Extension of the Gini Inequality Index," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 24(3), pages 617-628, October.
    37. Louis Kaplow, 1985. "Horizontal Equity: Measures in Search of a Principle," NBER Working Papers 1679, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    38. Lambert, Peter J. & Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 1995. "Equity, equality and welfare," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(3-4), pages 674-682, April.
    39. Kaplow, Louis, 1989. "Horizontal Equity: Measures in Search of a Principle," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 42(2), pages 139-154, June.
    40. Plotnick, Robert, 1981. "A Measure of Horizontal Inequity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 63(2), pages 283-288, May.
    41. Aronson, J. Richard & Lambert, Peter J., 1994. "Decomposing the Gini Coefficient to Reveal the Vertical, Horizontal, and Reranking Effects of Income Taxation," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 47(2), pages 273-94, June.
    42. Louis Kaplow, 1994. "A Fundamental Objection to Tax Equity Norms: A Call for Utilitarianism," NBER Working Papers 4961, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    43. DUCLOS, Jean-Yves, 1995. "Measuring Progressivity and Inequality," Cahiers de recherche 9525, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
    44. Muliere, Pietro & Scarsini, Marco, 1989. "A note on stochastic dominance and inequality measures," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 314-323, December.
    45. Shlomo Yitzhaki, 1979. "Relative Deprivation and the Gini Coefficient," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 93(2), pages 321-324.
    46. Atkinson, Anthony B., 1970. "On the measurement of inequality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 244-263, September.
    47. Blackorby, Charles & Donaldson, David, 1978. "Measures of relative equality and their meaning in terms of social welfare," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 59-80, June.
    48. Stephen Jenkins & Peter Lambert, "undated". "Horizontal Inequity Measurement: A Basic Reassessment," Discussion Papers 96/21, Department of Economics, University of York.
    49. Rolf Aaberge, 2000. "Characterizations of Lorenz curves and income distributions," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer;The Society for Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 17(4), pages 639-653.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Cavagnero, Eleonora & Bilger, Marcel, 2010. "Equity during an economic crisis: Financing of the Argentine health system," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 479-488, July.
    2. Allanson, Paul, 2008. "On the characterisation and measurement of the welfare effects of income mobility from an ex-ante perspective," SIRE Discussion Papers 2008-48, Scottish Institute for Research in Economics (SIRE).
    3. Carlos Díaz Caro & Jorge Onrubia Fernández, 2014. "Inequidad horizontal en el IRPF dual espanol," Studies on the Spanish Economy eee2014-08, FEDEA.
    4. Mulenga, Arnold & Ataguba, John Ele-Ojo, 2017. "Assessing income redistributive effect of health financing in Zambia," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 189(C), pages 1-10.
    5. Carlos Díaz Caro & Jorge Onrubia Fernández & Jesús Pérez Mayo, 2013. "Progresividad y redistribución por fuentes de renta en el IRPF dual," Hacienda Pública Española, IEF, vol. 206(3), pages 57-87, September.
    6. Bibi, Sami & Duclos, Jean-Yves, 2007. "Equity and policy effectiveness with imperfect targeting," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(1), pages 109-140, May.
    7. Duclos, Jean-Yves, 2006. "Equity and Equality," IZA Discussion Papers 2284, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    8. Bilger, Marcel, 2008. "Progressivity, horizontal inequality and reranking caused by health system financing: A decomposition analysis for Switzerland," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 1582-1593, December.
    9. Nora Lustig, 2016. "Commitment to Equity Handbook. A Guide to Estimating the Impact of Fiscal Policy on Inequality and Poverty," Commitment to Equity (CEQ) Working Paper Series 1301, Tulane University, Department of Economics.
    10. O'Neill, D. & Van Kerm P., 2003. "A New Approach for Analysing Income Convergence across Countries," Economics, Finance and Accounting Department Working Paper Series n1261003, Department of Economics, Finance and Accounting, National University of Ireland - Maynooth.
    11. Peter Lambert, & Giuseppe Lanza, 2003. "The effect on inequality of changing one or two incomes," IFS Working Papers W03/15, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    12. Essama-Nssah, B., 2008. "Assessing the redistributive effect of fiscal policy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4592, The World Bank.
    13. Adam Wagstaff & Marcel Bilger & Zurab Sajaia & Michael Lokshin, 2011. "Health Equity and Financial Protection : Streamlined Analysis with ADePT Software," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2306, December.
    14. repec:col:000093:015846 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Donal O'Neill & Philippe Van Kerm, 2008. "An Integrated Framework For Analysing Income Convergence," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 76(1), pages 1-20, January.
    16. Bolle, Friedel & Liepmann, Hannah & Vogel, Claudia, 2012. "How much social insurance do you want? An experimental study," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 1170-1181.
    17. Luis Huesca & Arturo Robles Valencia & Abdelkrim Araar, 2015. "Progressivity and decomposition of VAT in the Mexican border, 2014," Estudios Regionales en Economía, Población y Desarrollo. Cuadernos de Trabajo de la Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez. 25, Cuerpo Académico 41 de la Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, revised 01 Jan 2015.
    18. Paul Allanson, 2012. "On the characterization and economic evaluation of income mobility as a process of distributional change," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 10(4), pages 505-528, December.
    19. Allanson, Paul & Petrie, Dennis, 2013. "Longitudinal methods to investigate the role of health determinants in the dynamics of income-related health inequality," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 922-937.
    20. Ivica Urban, 2013. "Implementation Issues in the Duclos–Jalbert–Araar Decomposition of Redistributive Effect," Public Finance Review, , vol. 41(1), pages 121-143, January.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Horizontal Inequity; Reranking; Tax Equity; Inequality; Canadian Tax System;

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:lvl:lacicr:0306. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Manuel Paradis). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/cirpeca.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.