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Inégalité et redistribution du revenu, avec une application au Canada

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  • Duclos, Jean-Yves
  • Tabi, Martin

Abstract

L'utilité des courbes de Lorenz pour l'analyse de la répartition des revenus est bien connue depuis l'article influent d'Atkinson (1970). Nous indiquons dans le présent article comment l'usage combiné de ces courbes de Lorenz et des courbes de concentration des revenus, des impôts ou des transferts permet de résumer facilement et intuitivement l'impact de l'État sur la distribution des revenus. Nous nous intéressons plus particulièrement à la redistribution des revenus ainsi qu'à l'équité verticale et l'iniquité horizontale exercées par l'impôt direct et les politiques de transferts. En appliquant des poids "éthiques" à la distance entre les courbes de Lorenz et de concentration, l'on obtient des indices synthétiques d'inégalité, de redistribution et d'équité qui peuvent être facilement décomposés en contributions individuelles des différents types d'impôts et de transferts. Ces indices représentent une généralisation et une extension de l'indice d'inégalité bien connu de Gini. Cette approche est illustrée à l'aide de la distribution et de la redistribution des revenus au Canada au cours de la dernière décennie. On confirme le résultat bien connu que l'inégalité des revenus bruts s'est accrue de 1981 à 1990 alors qu'elle a chuté pour le revenu net. La redistribution opérée par le système fiscal s'est considérablement accrue au cours de cette décennie, au prix entre autres choses d'une plus grande iniquité horizontale. Le groupe de transferts reliés à la retraite et à la vieillesse est celui qui exerce de loin le plus d'impact sur la redistribution des revenus. L'impact redistributif de l'impôt direct est quant à lui très sensible au paramètre de subjectivité éthique utilisé.

Suggested Citation

  • Duclos, Jean-Yves & Tabi, Martin, 1998. "Inégalité et redistribution du revenu, avec une application au Canada," Cahiers de recherche 9821, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
  • Handle: RePEc:lvl:laeccr:9821
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    Cited by:

    1. Duclos, Jean-Yves & Jalbert, Vincent & Araar, Abdelkrim, 2000. "Classical Horizontal Inequity and Reranking: an Integrated Approach," Cahiers de recherche 0002, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
    2. Marcelin Joanis & Edgard Rodriguez, 2013. "Public Redistribution and Inequality in a Period of Fiscal Consolidation: A Decomposition Analysis for Canada in the 1980s and 1990s," Economic Papers, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 32(2), pages 218-238, June.

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