IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/sol/wpaper/2013-130924.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Determinants of Margin in Microfinance Institutions

Author

Listed:
  • Beatriz Cuéllar Fernández
  • Yolanda Fuertes-Callén
  • Carlos Serrano-Cinca
  • Begoña Gutiérrez-Nieto

Abstract

Microfinance institutions (MFIs) lend to the poor, fostering these individuals’ financial inclusion. However, microfinance clients suffer from high interest rates, a type of poverty penalty. Reducing margins and lowering interest rates should be a target for MFIs with a strong social commitment. This paper analyzes the determinants of margin in MFIs. A banking model has been adapted to the case of MFIs. This model has been empirically tested using 9-year panel data. Some factors explaining bank margin also explain MFI margin, with operating expenses being the most important factor. Specific microfinance factors are donations and legal status, as regulated MFIs can collect deposits. It has also been found that MFIs operating in countries with a high level of financial inclusion have low margins.

Suggested Citation

  • Beatriz Cuéllar Fernández & Yolanda Fuertes-Callén & Carlos Serrano-Cinca & Begoña Gutiérrez-Nieto, 2012. "Determinants of Margin in Microfinance Institutions," Working Papers CEB 12-030, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  • Handle: RePEc:sol:wpaper:2013/130924
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/130924/3/wp12030.pdf
    File Function: wp12030
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Lepetit, Laetitia & Nys, Emmanuelle & Rous, Philippe & Tarazi, Amine, 2008. "The expansion of services in European banking: Implications for loan pricing and interest margins," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(11), pages 2325-2335, November.
    2. Alok Bhargava & J. D. Sargan, 2006. "Estimating Dynamic Random Effects Models From Panel Data Covering Short Time Periods," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Econometrics, Statistics And Computational Approaches In Food And Health Sciences, chapter 1, pages 3-27, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    3. Emilios Galariotis & Christophe Villa & Nurmukhammad Yusupov, 2011. "Recent Advances in Lending to the Poor with Asymmetric Information," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(9), pages 1371-1390, July.
    4. Demirguc, Asli & Huizinga, Harry, 1999. "Determinants of Commercial Bank Interest Margins and Profitability: Some International Evidence," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 13(2), pages 379-408, May.
    5. Steven B. Caudill & Daniel M. Gropper & Valentina Hartarska, 2009. "Which Microfinance Institutions Are Becoming More Cost Effective with Time? Evidence from a Mixture Model," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 41(4), pages 651-672, June.
    6. Maudos, Joaquín & Solís, Liliana, 2009. "The determinants of net interest income in the Mexican banking system: An integrated model," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1920-1931, October.
    7. Katsushi S. Imai & MD. Shafiul Azam, 2011. "Does Microfinance Reduce Poverty in Bangladesh? New Evidence from Household Panel Data," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(5), pages 633-653, October.
    8. Ahlin, Christian & Lin, Jocelyn & Maio, Michael, 2011. "Where does microfinance flourish? Microfinance institution performance in macroeconomic context," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 105-120, July.
    9. Thorsten Beck & Patrick Behr & Andreas Madestam, 2011. "Sex and Credit: Is There a Gender Bias in Lending?," Working Papers 411, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
    10. Nicolas Krauss & Ingo Walter, 2009. "Can Microfinance Reduce Portfolio Volatility?," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 58(1), pages 85-110, October.
    11. Gregor Dorfleitner & Michaela Leidl & Christopher Priberny & Jakob von Mosch, 2013. "What determines microcredit interest rates?," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(20), pages 1579-1597, October.
    12. Valentina Hartarska & Denis Nadolnyak, 2007. "Do regulated microfinance institutions achieve better sustainability and outreach? Cross-country evidence," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(10), pages 1207-1222.
    13. Mersland, Roy & Strøm, R. Øystein, 2010. "Microfinance Mission Drift?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 28-36, January.
    14. Maudos, Joaquin & Fernandez de Guevara, Juan, 2004. "Factors explaining the interest margin in the banking sectors of the European Union," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(9), pages 2259-2281, September.
    15. Alberto F. Alesina & Francesca Lotti & Paolo Emilio Mistrulli, 2013. "Do Women Pay More For Credit? Evidence From Italy," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 11, pages 45-66, January.
    16. Allen, Linda, 1988. "The Determinants of Bank Interest Margins: A Note," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 23(2), pages 231-235, June.
    17. Saunders, Anthony & Schumacher, Liliana, 2000. "The determinants of bank interest rate margins: an international study," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 813-832, December.
    18. Smith, Donald J & Cargill, Thomas F & Meyer, Robert A, 1981. "An Economic Theory of a Credit Union," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 36(2), pages 519-528, May.
    19. Bellucci, Andrea & Borisov, Alexander & Zazzaro, Alberto, 2010. "Does gender matter in bank-firm relationships? Evidence from small business lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(12), pages 2968-2984, December.
    20. Beatriz Armendáriz & Ariane Szafarz, 2011. "On Mission Drift in Microfinance Institutions," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Beatriz Armendáriz & Marc Labie (ed.), The Handbook Of Microfinance, chapter 16, pages 341-366, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    21. Allen N. Berger & Leora F. Klapper & Rima Turk-Ariss, 2017. "Bank competition and financial stability," Chapters, in: Jacob A. Bikker & Laura Spierdijk (ed.), Handbook of Competition in Banking and Finance, chapter 10, pages 185-204, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    22. Navajas, Sergio & Schreiner, Mark & Meyer, Richard L. & Gonzalez-vega, Claudio & Rodriguez-meza, Jorge, 2000. "Microcredit and the Poorest of the Poor: Theory and Evidence from Bolivia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 333-346, February.
    23. Entrop, Oliver & Memmel, Christoph & Ruprecht, Benedikt & Wilkens, Marco, 2015. "Determinants of bank interest margins: Impact of maturity transformation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 1-19.
    24. Ho, Thomas S. Y. & Saunders, Anthony, 1981. "The Determinants of Bank Interest Margins: Theory and Empirical Evidence," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 16(4), pages 581-600, November.
    25. Allen, Franklin & Santomero, Anthony M., 1997. "The theory of financial intermediation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(11-12), pages 1461-1485, December.
    26. Morduch, Jonathan, 1999. "The role of subsidies in microfinance: evidence from the Grameen Bank," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 229-248, October.
    27. Hermes, Niels & Lensink, Robert & Meesters, Aljar, 2011. "Outreach and Efficiency of Microfinance Institutions," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 938-948, June.
    28. Servin, Roselia & Lensink, Robert & van den Berg, Marrit, 2012. "Ownership and technical efficiency of microfinance institutions: Empirical evidence from Latin America," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 2136-2144.
    29. Bert D'espallier & Isabelle Guerin & Roy Mersland, 2013. "Focus on Women in Microfinance Institutions," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(5), pages 589-608, May.
    30. Mersland, Roy & Øystein Strøm, R., 2009. "Performance and governance in microfinance institutions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 662-669, April.
    31. Mersland, Roy, 2009. "The Cost of Ownership in Microfinance Organizations," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 469-478, February.
    32. Beck, T.H.L. & Behr, P. & Madestam, A., 2011. "Sex and Credit : Is There a Gender Bias in Microfinance?," Other publications TiSEM ea5418eb-7e1e-475c-a70a-8, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    33. Guillermo Baquero & Malika Hamadi & Andréas Heinen, 2012. "Competition, loan rates and information dispersion in microcredit markets," ESMT Research Working Papers ESMT-12-02, ESMT European School of Management and Technology.
    34. Behr, Patrick & Entzian, Annekathrin & Güttler, Andre, 2011. "How do lending relationships affect access to credit and loan conditions in microlending?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(8), pages 2169-2178, August.
    35. Hermes, Niels & Lensink, Robert, 2011. "Microfinance: Its Impact, Outreach, and Sustainability," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 875-881, June.
    36. Hege Gulli, 1998. "Microfinance and Poverty: Questioning the Conventional Wisdom," IDB Publications (Books), Inter-American Development Bank, number 79506 edited by Nancy Morrison, February.
    37. Angbazo, Lazarus, 1997. "Commercial bank net interest margins, default risk, interest-rate risk, and off-balance sheet banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 55-87, January.
    38. Roy Mersland & Reidar Øystein Strøm, 2008. "Performance and trade-offs in Microfinance Organisations-does ownership matter?," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(5), pages 598-612.
    39. Gulli, Hege, 2018. "Microfinance and Poverty: Questioning the Conventional Wisdom," IDB Publications (Books), Inter-American Development Bank, number 428, February.
    40. McShane, R. W. & Sharpe, I. G., 1985. "A time series/cross section analysis of the determinants of Australian trading bank loan/deposit interest margins: 1962-1981," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 115-136, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Giovanna Aguilar & Jhonatan Portilla, 2020. "Determinants of Market Power in the Peruvian Regulated Microfinance Sector," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 20(4), pages 657-688, December.
    2. Adriana Ramírez Rocha & L. Arturo Bernal Ponce & Mauricio Cervantes Zepeda, 2019. "Differences in the interest rates of microfinance institutions in some emerging markets economies: An HLM approach/Diferencias en las tasas de interés entre instituciones financieras de algunas econom," Estudios Económicos, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Económicos, vol. 34(2), pages 275-307.
    3. Hossain, Shahadat & Galbreath, Jeremy & Hasan, Mostafa Monzur & Randøy, Trond, 2020. "Does competition enhance the double-bottom-line performance of microfinance institutions?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 113(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Begoña Gutiérrez-Nieto & Carlos Serrano-Cinca & Beatriz Cuéllar-Fernández & Yolanda Fuertes-Callén, 2017. "The Poverty Penalty and Microcredit," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 133(2), pages 455-475, September.
    2. Niels Hermes & Marek Hudon, 2018. "Determinants Of The Performance Of Microfinance Institutions: A Systematic Review," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(5), pages 1483-1513, December.
    3. Carlos Serrano-Cinca & Begoña Gutiérrez-Nieto & Beatriz Cuéllar Fernández & Yolanda Fuertes-Callén, 2013. "Poverty penalty and microfinance," Working Papers CEB 13-029, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    4. Molyneux, Philip & Reghezza, Alessio & Xie, Ru, 2019. "Bank margins and profits in a world of negative rates," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 1-1.
    5. Gabriele Angori & David Aristei & Manuela Gallo, 2019. "Determinants of Banks’ Net Interest Margin: Evidence from the Euro Area during the Crisis and Post-Crisis Period," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(14), pages 1-20, July.
    6. Simon Cornée & Gervais Thenet, 2015. "Efficience des institutions de microfinance en Bolivie et au Pérou : une approche Data Envelopment Analysis en deux étapes," Economics Working Paper Archive (University of Rennes 1 & University of Caen) 201516, Center for Research in Economics and Management (CREM), University of Rennes 1, University of Caen and CNRS.
    7. Hermes, Cornelis & Hudon, M., 2018. "Determinants of the Performance of Microfinance Institutions: A Systematic Review," Research Report 2018008, University of Groningen, Research Institute SOM (Systems, Organisations and Management).
    8. Ahmad, Syedah & Lensink, Robert & Mueller, Annika, 2020. "The double bottom line of microfinance: A global comparison between conventional and Islamic microfinance," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 136(C).
    9. Entrop, Oliver & Memmel, Christoph & Ruprecht, Benedikt & Wilkens, Marco, 2015. "Determinants of bank interest margins: Impact of maturity transformation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 1-19.
    10. Simon Zaby, 2019. "Science Mapping of the Global Knowledge Base on Microfinance: Influential Authors and Documents, 1989–2019," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(14), pages 1-21, July.
    11. Widiarto, Indra & Emrouznejad, Ali, 2015. "Social and financial efficiency of Islamic microfinance institutions: A Data Envelopment Analysis application," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 1-17.
    12. Bos, Jaap W.B. & Millone, Matteo, 2015. "Practice What You Preach: Microfinance Business Models and Operational Efficiency," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 28-42.
    13. Patrick Reichert, 2016. "A meta-analysis examining the nature of trade-offs in microfinance," Working Papers CEB 16-005, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    14. Trinugroho, Irwan & Agusman, Agusman & Tarazi, Amine, 2014. "Why have bank interest margins been so high in Indonesia since the 1997/1998 financial crisis?," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 139-158.
    15. Birchwood, Anthony & Brei, Michael & Noel, Dorian M., 2017. "Interest margins and bank regulation in Central America and the Caribbean," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 56-68.
    16. Beisland, Leif Atle & Mersland, Roy & Randøy, Trond, 2014. "The Association between microfinance rating scores and corporate governance: a global survey," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 268-280.
    17. Namrata Gupta & Anita Mirchandani, 2020. "Corporate governance and performance of microfinance institutions: recent global evidences," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 24(2), pages 307-326, June.
    18. Begoña Gutiérrez Nieto & Carlos Serrano-Cinca, 2019. "20 Years of Research in Microfinance: An Information Management Approach," Working Papers CEB 19-005, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    19. Bibi, Uzma & Balli, Hatice Ozer & Matthews, Claire D. & Tripe, David W.L., 2018. "New approaches to measure the social performance of microfinance institutions (MFIs)," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 88-97.
    20. Lin, Jane-Raung & Chung, Huimin & Hsieh, Ming-Hsiang & Wu, Soushan, 2012. "The determinants of interest margins and their effect on bank diversification: Evidence from Asian banks," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 96-106.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Microfinance institutions; banking; net interest income; outreach; financial inclusion;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • R51 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Regional Government Analysis - - - Finance in Urban and Rural Economies

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sol:wpaper:2013/130924. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Benoit Pauwels). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/cebulbe.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.