This Is What The Leading Indicators Lead
The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, we compare the accuracy of previous studies that analyze the ability of the Composite Index of Leading Indicators (CLI) for predicting turning points. Alternative filters are also proposed. For these comparisons, we adapt the tests developed by Diebold and Mariano (1995) to the business cycles framework. Second, we combine different approaches to produce a filter that transforms the monthly CLI growth figures into a more intuitive measure of the probability of recession. We examine the predictive power of the CLI for movements in GDP.For the first objective, we analyze the accuracy of the following models: First, we generalize the analysis of Hamilton and Perez-Quiros (1996) describing how linear univariate and bivariate models can be used to forecast nonlinear phenomena such as turning points. We update their study of multivariate Markov switching models. Second, we extend the Smooth Transition Regression methodology to a VAR context. We identify the transition function as the filter that shows the probability of locating the economy between the different states. Third, we analyze an expansion of the probit model suggested in Estrella and Mishkin (1998). Finally, we propose a new methodology based upon adaptive kernel estimation for predicting recessions nonparametrically. Despite the good in-sample performance of the switching regimes model, we conclude that a simple linear univariate model for GDP is more accurate than any bivariate specification in real-time.For the second objective, we suggest that a combination of the forecasts may exploit more leading information from the CLI than any of the individual forecasting models. Combining forecasts of growth, we apply the rule proposed by Granger and Ramanathan (1984). Combining forecasts of recessions, we use a method in the spirit of Li and Dorfman (1996). We prove that a combination of the switching regimes (the best within recessions) and the nonparametic (the best within expansions) is as good as a combination of all the models. The out-of-sample results indicate that the real-time combination presents the most accurate statistical forecast of both GDP growth and recessions. Thus, we conclude that the CLI is useful in anticipating both turning points and output growth. In addition, in contrast to Hess and Iwata (1997), we find that nonlinear specifications perform better than simpler linear models at reproducing the business cycles features of real GDP.An illustration of the operation of this filter shows that the same CLI growth rate contains very different information about the probability of an imminent recession depending on the period considered.
|Date of creation:||05 Jul 2000|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: CEF 2000, Departament d'Economia i Empresa, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Ramon Trias Fargas, 25,27, 08005, Barcelona, Spain|
Fax: +34 93 542 17 46
Web page: http://enginy.upf.es/SCE/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Francis X. Diebold & Robert S. Mariano, 1994.
"Comparing Predictive Accuracy,"
NBER Technical Working Papers
0169, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Diebold, Francis X & Mariano, Roberto S, 1995. "Comparing Predictive Accuracy," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 13(3), pages 253-63, July.
- Diebold, Francis X & Mariano, Roberto S, 2002. "Comparing Predictive Accuracy," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(1), pages 134-44, January.
- Clive W. Granger & Timo Terasvirta & Heather M. Anderson, 1993. "Modeling Nonlinearity over the Business Cycle," NBER Chapters, in: Business Cycles, Indicators and Forecasting, pages 311-326 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Andrew J. Filardo, 1999. "How reliable are recession prediction models?," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q II, pages 35-55.
- Denis Kwiatkowski & Peter C.B. Phillips & Peter Schmidt, 1991.
"Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of a Unit Root: How Sure Are We That Economic Time Series Have a Unit Root?,"
Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers
979, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Kwiatkowski, Denis & Phillips, Peter C. B. & Schmidt, Peter & Shin, Yongcheol, 1992. "Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root : How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1-3), pages 159-178.
- Tom Doan, . "KPSS: RATS procedure to perform KPSS (Kwiatowski, Phillips, Schmidt, and Shin) stationarity test," Statistical Software Components RTS00100, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Kwiatkowski, D. & Phillips, P.C.B. & Schmidt, P., 1990. "Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of Unit Root : How Sure are we that Economic Time Series have a Unit Root?," Papers 8905, Michigan State - Econometrics and Economic Theory.
- Wecker, William E, 1979. "Predicting the Turning Points of a Time Series," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 52(1), pages 35-50, January.
- Birchenhall, Chris R & Osborn, Denise R & Sensier, Marianne, 2001.
"Predicting UK Business Cycle Regimes,"
Scottish Journal of Political Economy,
Scottish Economic Society, vol. 48(2), pages 179-95, May.
- Chris R. Birchenhall & Marianne Sensier & Denise R. Osborn, 2000. "Predicting Uk Business Cycle Regimes," Computing in Economics and Finance 2000 134, Society for Computational Economics.
- C R Birchenhall & D R Osborn & M Sensier, 2000. "Predicting UK Business Cycle Regimes," Centre for Growth and Business Cycle Research Discussion Paper Series 02, Economics, The Univeristy of Manchester.
- Chris Birchenhall & Marianne Sensier, 2000. "Predicting UK Business Cycle Regimes," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0953, Econometric Society.
- Arturo Estrella & Frederic S. Mishkin, 1995.
"Predicting U.S. Recessions: Financial Variables as Leading Indicators,"
NBER Working Papers
5379, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Arturo Estrella & Frederic S. Mishkin, 1998. "Predicting U.S. Recessions: Financial Variables As Leading Indicators," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(1), pages 45-61, February.
- Arturo Estrella & Frederic S. Mishkin, 1996. "Predicting U.S. recessions: financial variables as leading indicators," Research Paper 9609, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Francis X. Diebold & Glenn D. Rudebusch, 1987.
"Scoring the leading indicators,"
Special Studies Papers
206, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987.
"Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing,"
Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
- Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
- Hamilton, James D, 1989. "A New Approach to the Economic Analysis of Nonstationary Time Series and the Business Cycle," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 357-84, March.
- James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 1998. "A Comparison of Linear and Nonlinear Univariate Models for Forecasting Macroeconomic Time Series," NBER Working Papers 6607, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Filardo, Andrew J, 1994.
"Business-Cycle Phases and Their Transitional Dynamics,"
Journal of Business & Economic Statistics,
American Statistical Association, vol. 12(3), pages 299-308, July.
- Tom Doan, . "RATS programs to replicate Filardo JBES 1994 paper with time-varying Markov switching," Statistical Software Components RTZ00059, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Andrew J. Filardo, 1993. "Business cycle phases and their transitional dynamics," Research Working Paper 93-14, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
- James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 1993.
"A Procedure for Predicting Recessions with Leading Indicators: Econometric Issues and Recent Experience,"
in: Business Cycles, Indicators and Forecasting, pages 95-156
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 1992. "A Procedure for Predicting Recessions With Leading Indicators: Econometric Issues and Recent Experience," NBER Working Papers 4014, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Birchenhall, Chris R, et al, 1999. "Predicting U.S. Business-Cycle Regimes," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 17(3), pages 313-23, July.
- Ignacio N. Lobato & Peter M. Robinson, 1998. "A Nonparametric Test for I(0)," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 65(3), pages 475-495.
- Hamilton, James D & Perez-Quiros, Gabriel, 1996. "What Do the Leading Indicators Lead?," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 69(1), pages 27-49, January.
- Li, David T & Dorfman, Jeffrey H, 1996. "Predicting Turning Points through the Integration of Multiple Models," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 14(4), pages 421-28, October.
- Hess, Gregory D & Iwata, Shigeru, 1997. "Measuring and Comparing Business-Cycle Features," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 15(4), pages 432-44, October.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sce:scecf0:132. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Christopher F. Baum)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.