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A note on dummies for policies in gravity models: a Montecarlo experiment

  • Maria Cipollina
  • Luca Salvatici
  • Luca De Benedictis
  • Claudio Vicarelli

The use of the gravity model to evaluate the effect of policies in a cross-country framework is largely predominant in the international economics empirical literature. This literature usually implements importer and exporter fixed effects to account for the theoretical Multilateral Trade Resistances, while preferential trade policies are approximated through the use of dummy variables. Results from a Monte Carlo experiment confirms that the identification of trade policy im pact using a gravity equation including fixed effects is severely limited. Moreover, the consequences of the error in measurement of the policy variable are magnified by the fixed effects control for unobserved heterogeneity.

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Paper provided by Department of Economics - University Roma Tre in its series Departmental Working Papers of Economics - University 'Roma Tre' with number 0180.

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Date of creation: Sep 2013
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Handle: RePEc:rtr:wpaper:0180
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  1. J. M. C. Santos Silva & Silvana Tenreyro, 2006. "The Log of Gravity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(4), pages 641-658, November.
  2. Keith Head & Thierry Mayer, 2013. "Gravity Equations: Workhorse, Toolkit, and Cookbook," Working Papers hal-00973067, HAL.
  3. Maria Cipollina & Luca Salvatici, 2010. "The trade impact of European Union agricultural preferences," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(1), pages 87-106.
  4. Laszlo Matyas, 1997. "Proper Econometric Specification of the Gravity Model," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(3), pages 363-368, 05.
  5. Marie M. Stack, 2009. "Regional Integration and Trade: Controlling for Varying Degrees of Heterogeneity in the Gravity Model," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(5), pages 772-789, 05.
  6. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2004. "Trade Costs," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 593, Boston College Department of Economics.
  7. Xiong, Bo & Chen, Sixia, 2012. "Estimating Gravity Equation Models in the Presence of Sample Selection and Heteroskedasticity," 2012 Annual Meeting, August 12-14, 2012, Seattle, Washington 124530, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  8. T. D. Stanley & Stephen B. Jarrell, 2005. "Meta-Regression Analysis: A Quantitative Method of Literature Surveys," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(3), pages 299-308, 07.
  9. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2001. "Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 8079, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Cecília Hornok, 2012. "Gravity or Dummies? The Limits of Identification in Gravity Estimations," CEU Working Papers 2012_11, Department of Economics, Central European University, revised 20 May 2012.
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