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Prior Elicitation in Multiple Change-point Models

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  • Gary Koop

    () (University of Strathclyde, UK and The Rimini Centre for Economics Analysis, Rimini, Italy)

  • Simon M. Potter

    () (Federal Reserve Bank of New York, UK)

Abstract

This paper discusses Bayesian inference in change-point models. The main existing approaches either attempt to be noninformative by using a Uniform prior over change-points or use an informative hierarchical prior. Both these approaches assume a known number of change-points. We show how they have some potentially undesirable properties and discuss how these properties relate to the imposition of a fixed number of change-points. We develop a new Uniform prior which allows some of the change-points to occur out-of sample. This prior has desirable properties, can reasonably be interpreted as “noninformative” and handles the case where the number of change-points is unknown. We show how the general ideas of our approach can be extended to informative hierarchical priors. With artificial data and two empirical illustrations, we show how these different priors can have a substantial impact on estimation and prediction even with moderately large data sets.

Suggested Citation

  • Gary Koop & Simon M. Potter, 2007. "Prior Elicitation in Multiple Change-point Models," Working Paper series 17_07, Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis.
  • Handle: RePEc:rim:rimwps:17_07
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Koop, Gary & Potter, Simon M, 2003. "Bayesian Analysis of Endogenous Delay Threshold Models," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 21(1), pages 93-103, January.
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    11. Ang, Andrew & Bekaert, Geert, 2002. "Regime Switches in Interest Rates," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(2), pages 163-182, April.
    12. Stock, James H & Watson, Mark W, 1996. "Evidence on Structural Instability in Macroeconomic Time Series Relations," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 14(1), pages 11-30, January.
    13. Gary Koop & Simon M. Potter, 2004. "Forecasting and estimating multiple change-point models with an unknown number of change points," Staff Reports 196, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    14. Chang-Jin Kim & Charles R. Nelson, 1999. "Has The U.S. Economy Become More Stable? A Bayesian Approach Based On A Markov-Switching Model Of The Business Cycle," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(4), pages 608-616, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Hashem Pesaran & Davide Pettenuzzo & Allan Timmermann, 2007. "Learning, Structural Instability, and Present Value Calculations," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(2-4), pages 253-288.
    2. Luintel, Kul B. & Khan, Mosahid & Leon-Gonzalez, Roberto & Li, Guangjie, 2016. "Financial development, structure and growth: New data, method and results," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 95-112.
    3. Giordani, Paolo & Villani, Mattias, 2010. "Forecasting macroeconomic time series with locally adaptive signal extraction," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 312-325, April.
    4. John Geweke & Joel Horowitz & M. Hashem Pesaran, 2006. "Econometrics: A Bird’s Eye View," CESifo Working Paper Series 1870, CESifo Group Munich.
    5. Venkata Jandhyala & Stergios Fotopoulos & Ian MacNeill & Pengyu Liu, 2013. "Inference for single and multiple change-points in time series," Journal of Time Series Analysis, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(4), pages 423-446, July.
    6. Chun Liu & John M. Maheu, 2008. "Are There Structural Breaks in Realized Volatility?," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 6(3), pages 326-360, Summer.
    7. Jochmann, Markus & Koop, Gary & Strachan, Rodney W., 2010. "Bayesian forecasting using stochastic search variable selection in a VAR subject to breaks," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 326-347, April.
    8. Gary M. Koop & Simon M. Potter, 2004. "Forecasting and Estimating Multiple Change-point Models with an Unknown Number of Change-points," Discussion Papers in Economics 04/31, Department of Economics, University of Leicester.
    9. Giordani, Paolo & Kohn, Robert, 2008. "Efficient Bayesian Inference for Multiple Change-Point and Mixture Innovation Models," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 26, pages 66-77, January.
    10. Petros Dellaportas & David Denison & Chris Holmes, 2007. "Flexible Threshold Models for Modelling Interest Rate Volatility," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(2-4), pages 419-437.
    11. Guangjie Li, 2015. "A stochastic frontier model with structural breaks in efficiency and technology," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 49(1), pages 131-159, August.
    12. Ruggieri, Eric & Antonellis, Marcus, 2016. "An exact approach to Bayesian sequential change point detection," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 71-86.

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