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Monetary Policy, the Tax Code, and Energy Price Shocks

  • Finn E. Kydland

    (University of California, Santa Barbara)

  • Fei Mao

    (Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis)

  • William T. Gavin

    (Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis)

Registered author(s):

    This paper analyzes the effect of energy price shocks on business cycle fluctuations in a model with monetary policy and a tax code. The tax code includes a tax on realized nominal capital gains. When the monetary regime allows energy price shocks to affect long run inflation expectations, oil price shocks have an immediate and large impact on output and hours worked because changes in the expected inflation rate change the expected effective tax rate on capital gains. A tax on interest income magnifies the effect of all shocks on interest rates and inflation. The model helps to explain why the effect of energy price shocks was so large before 1980 and why the effect disappeared afterwards. The measurable real effects of monetary policy work through the interaction of inflation with the imperfectly indexed tax code.

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    File URL: https://economicdynamics.org/meetpapers/2011/paper_1160.pdf
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    Paper provided by Society for Economic Dynamics in its series 2011 Meeting Papers with number 1160.

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    Date of creation: 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:red:sed011:1160
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    Society for Economic Dynamics Marina Azzimonti Department of Economics Stonybrook University 10 Nicolls Road Stonybrook NY 11790 USA

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    1. Sami Alpanda & Adrian Peralta-Alva, 2010. "Oil Crisis, Energy-Saving Technological Change and the Stock Market Crash of 1973-74," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 13(4), pages 824-842, October.
    2. Peter N. Ireland, 2006. "Changes in the Federal Reserve's Inflation Target: Causes and Consequences," NBER Working Papers 12492, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Martin Neil Baily, 1981. "Productivity and the Services of Capital and Labor," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 12(1), pages 1-66.
    4. James D. Hamilton, 2009. "Causes and Consequences of the Oil Shock of 2007-08," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 40(1 (Spring), pages 215-283.
    5. Finn, Mary G, 2000. "Perfect Competition and the Effects of Energy Price Increases on Economic Activity," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(3), pages 400-416, August.
    6. William T. Gavin & Finn E. Kydland & Michael R. Pakko, 2006. "Monetary policy, taxes and the business cycle," Working Papers 2004-017, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    7. Sylvain Leduc & Keith Sill, 2001. "A quantitative analysis of oil-price shocks, systematic monetary policy, and economic downturns," Working Papers 01-9, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
    8. Chao Wei, 2003. "Energy, the Stock Market, and the Putty-Clay Investment Model," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(1), pages 311-323, March.
    9. Hamilton, James D, 1983. "Oil and the Macroeconomy since World War II," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 91(2), pages 228-48, April.
    10. Pedro Silos & Karsten Jeske & Rajeev Dhawan, 2008. "Productivity, Energy Prices and the Great Moderation: A New Link," 2008 Meeting Papers 877, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    11. Barsky, Robert & Kilian, Lutz, 2004. "Oil and the Macroeconomy Since the 1970s," CEPR Discussion Papers 4496, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    12. Lutz Kilian & Logan T. Lewis, 2011. "Does the Fed Respond to Oil Price Shocks?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 121(555), pages 1047-1072, 09.
    13. Rotemberg, Julio J & Woodford, Michael, 1996. "Imperfect Competition and the Effects of Energy Price Increases on Economic Activity," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(4), pages 550-77, November.
    14. Lutz Kilian, 2009. "Not All Oil Price Shocks Are Alike: Disentangling Demand and Supply Shocks in the Crude Oil Market," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(3), pages 1053-69, June.
    15. Hooker, Mark A., 1996. "What happened to the oil price-macroeconomy relationship?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 195-213, October.
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