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Do Collective Action Clauses Influence Bond Yields? New Evidence from Emerging Markets

Author

Listed:
  • Mark Gugiatti

    (Reserve Bank of Australia)

  • Anthony Richards

    (Reserve Bank of Australia)

Abstract

This paper provides new empirical evidence relevant to the debate over the desirability of reforms to the way that financial markets and the international community deal with sovereign debt crises. In particular, given the ongoing opposition of investors and some sovereigns to greater use of collective action clauses (CACs) in emerging market bonds, we present new evidence on the way that financial markets have priced the use or non-use of CACs. We supplement existing evidence that the use of CACs in Euromarket issues has not affected yields on new bond issues through an event study that shows that decisions by issuers to change away from, or to, the use of CACs has also not affected the pricing of issuers’ existing stock of debt in the secondary market. We also provide new evidence on the pricing of a large sample of bonds in the secondary market on 31 January 2003. The data show that even after the intense debate about sovereign debt restructuring through 2002, the inclusion or absence of CACs still had no economically or statistically significant impact on yields as of early 2003. Hence we conclude that investors still had not focused on which bonds have CACs, or that they believe that the inclusion of CACs is not relevant to the pricing of debt. The empirical evidence therefore suggests there is no good reason why there cannot be greater use of CACs, including in bonds sold into the US market. A strong case can be made that investors will benefit from well-targeted reforms to the way that sovereign debt crises are handled. Indeed, Mexico’s successful sale of global bonds with CACs on 26 February 2003 – the first placement of bonds with CACs by an emerging market sovereign into the US market – suggests that the long-held opposition to CACs in some quarters may be easing.

Suggested Citation

  • Mark Gugiatti & Anthony Richards, 2003. "Do Collective Action Clauses Influence Bond Yields? New Evidence from Emerging Markets," RBA Research Discussion Papers rdp2003-02, Reserve Bank of Australia.
  • Handle: RePEc:rba:rbardp:rdp2003-02
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Eichengreen, Barry & Mody, Ashoka, 1999. "Would Collective Action Clauses Raise Borrowing Costs?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2343, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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    Cited by:

    1. Weinschelbaum, Federico & Wynne, Jose, 2005. "Renegotiation, collective action clauses and sovereign debt markets," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 47-72, September.
    2. Marc Flandreau & Juan H. Flores & Norbert Gaillard & Sebastián Nieto-Parra, 2010. "The End of Gatekeeping: Underwriters and the Quality of Sovereign Bond Markets, 1815-2007," NBER Chapters,in: NBER International Seminar on Macroeconomics 2009, pages 53-92 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Ghosal, Sayantan & Thampanishvong, Kannika, 2013. "Does strengthening Collective Action Clauses (CACs) help?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(1), pages 68-78.
    4. Rohan Pitchford & Mark L. J. Wright, 2012. "Holdouts in Sovereign Debt Restructuring: A Theory of Negotiation in a Weak Contractual Environment," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 79(2), pages 812-837.
    5. Häseler, Sönke, 2011. "Collective action clauses in sovereign bonds," MPRA Paper 35333, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Barry Eichengreen & Kenneth Kletzer & Ashoka Mody, 2003. "Crisis resolution: next steps," Pacific Basin Working Paper Series 03-05, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    7. Häseler, Sönke, 2010. "Trustees versus fiscal agents and default risk in international sovereign bonds," MPRA Paper 35332, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Schumacher, Julian & Chamon, Marcos & Trebesch, Christoph, 2015. "Foreign Law Bonds: Can They Reduce Sovereign Borrowing Costs?," Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 113199, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    9. Michael Tomz & Mark L.J. Wright, 2013. "Empirical Research on Sovereign Debt and Default," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 5(1), pages 247-272, May.
    10. Benu Schneider, 2005. "Do Global Standards And Codes Prevent Financial Crises? Some Proposals On Modifying The Standards-Based Approach," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 177, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    11. Andrew G Haldane & Adrian Penalver & Victoria Saporta & Hyun Song Shin, 2005. "Optimal collective action clause thresholds," Bank of England working papers 249, Bank of England.
    12. Sandrine Levasseur & Christine Rifflart, 2003. "Crises de dette souveraine : vers une nouvelle résolution ?," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 86(3), pages 83-131.
    13. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/2443 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Michael Bradley & James D. Cox & Mitu Gulati, 2010. "The Market Reaction to Legal Shocks and Their Antidotes: Lessons from the Sovereign Debt Market," The Journal of Legal Studies, University of Chicago Press, vol. 39(1), pages 289-324, January.
    15. Sönke Häseler, 2012. "Trustees versus fiscal agents and default risk in international sovereign bonds," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 425-448, December.
    16. Trebesch, Christoph, 2015. "Kurzgutachten zu Staatsschuldenkrisen," Working Papers 06/2015, German Council of Economic Experts / Sachverständigenrat zur Begutachtung der gesamtwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung.
    17. Christoph Trebesch & Michael G. Papaioannou & Udaibir S Das, 2012. "Sovereign Debt Restructurings 1950-2010; Literature Survey, Data, and Stylized Facts," IMF Working Papers 12/203, International Monetary Fund.
    18. Serbini, Bénédicte, 2012. "L’adoption des clauses d’actions collectives dans les obligations souveraines européennes," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 88(4), pages 479-497, Décembre.
    19. Charles B. Blankart & Erik R. Fasten, 2009. "Wer soll für die Schulden im Bundesstaat haften? Eine vernachlässigte Frage der Föderalismusreform II," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 10(1), pages 39-59, February.
    20. Alfredo Bardozzetti & Davide Dottori, 2013. "Collective action clauses: how do they weigh on sovereigns?," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 897, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    21. Bardozzetti, Alfredo & Dottori, Davide, 2014. "Collective action clauses: How do they affect sovereign bond yields?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(2), pages 286-303.
    22. Lanau, Sergi, 2011. "The contractual approach to sovereign debt restructuring," Bank of England working papers 409, Bank of England.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    bond yields; collective action clauses; debt restructuring; emerging markets; sovereign debt crises;

    JEL classification:

    • F34 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Lending and Debt Problems
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets

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