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Would collective action clauses raise borrowing costs? - an update and additional results

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  • Eichengreen, Barry
  • Mody, Ashoka

Abstract

It is easy to say that the International Monetary Fund should not resort to financial rescue for countries in crisis; this is hard to do when there is no alternative. That is where collective action clauses come in. Collective action clauses are designed to facilitate debt restructuring by the principals - borrowers, and lenders - with minimal intervention by international financial institutions. Despite much discussion of this option, there has been little action. Issues of bonds fear that collective action clauses would raise borrowing costs. The authors update earlier findings about the impact of collective action clauses on borrowing costs. It has been argued that only in the past year or so, have investors focused on the presence of these provisions, and that, given the international financial institutions'newfound resolve to"bail in"investors, they now regard these clauses with trepidation. Extending their data to 1999, the authors find no evidence of such changes, but rather the same pattern as before: Collective action clauses raise the costs of borrowing for low-rated issuers, but reduce them for issuers with good credit ratings. Their results hold both for the full set of bonds and for bonds issued only by sovereigns. They argue that these results should reassure those who regard collective action clauses as an important element in the campaign to strengthen international financial architecture.

Suggested Citation

  • Eichengreen, Barry & Mody, Ashoka, 2000. "Would collective action clauses raise borrowing costs? - an update and additional results," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2363, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2363
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    1. Eichengreen, Barry & Mody, Ashoka, 1999. "Would Collective Action Clauses Raise Borrowing Costs?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2343, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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    Cited by:

    1. Barry Eichengreen & Ashoka Mody, 2003. "Is Aggregation a Problem for Sovereign Debt Restructuring?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(2), pages 80-84, May.
    2. Marc Flandreau & Juan H. Flores & Norbert Gaillard & Sebastián Nieto-Parra, 2010. "The End of Gatekeeping: Underwriters and the Quality of Sovereign Bond Markets, 1815-2007," NBER Chapters,in: NBER International Seminar on Macroeconomics 2009, pages 53-92 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Rohan Pitchford & Mark L. J. Wright, 2012. "Holdouts in Sovereign Debt Restructuring: A Theory of Negotiation in a Weak Contractual Environment," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 79(2), pages 812-837.
    4. Hal S. Scott, 2002. "How Would a New Bankruptcy Regime Help?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 33(1), pages 334-340.
    5. Narjess Boubakri & Jean-Claude Cosset & Houcem Smaoui, 2011. "Political Institutions and Sovereign Credit Spreads," Working Papers 647, Economic Research Forum, revised 12 Jan 2011.
    6. Häseler, Sönke, 2010. "Trustees versus fiscal agents and default risk in international sovereign bonds," MPRA Paper 35332, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. George Fane, 2001. "The New International Financial Architecture: Bail-ins, Bail-outs, Bail-ups and Newspeak," Agenda - A Journal of Policy Analysis and Reform, Australian National University, College of Business and Economics, School of Economics, vol. 8(3), pages 223-233.
    8. Andrew G Haldane & Adrian Penalver & Victoria Saporta & Hyun Song Shin, 2005. "Optimal collective action clause thresholds," Bank of England working papers 249, Bank of England.
    9. Sandrine Levasseur & Christine Rifflart, 2003. "Crises de dette souveraine : vers une nouvelle résolution ?," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 86(3), pages 83-131.
    10. Michael Bradley & James D. Cox & Mitu Gulati, 2010. "The Market Reaction to Legal Shocks and Their Antidotes: Lessons from the Sovereign Debt Market," The Journal of Legal Studies, University of Chicago Press, vol. 39(1), pages 289-324, January.
    11. Sönke Häseler, 2012. "Trustees versus fiscal agents and default risk in international sovereign bonds," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 425-448, December.
    12. Jérôme Sgard, 2000. "La gestion des crises de liquidité internationale : logique de faillite, prêteur en dernier ressort et conditionnalité," Working Papers 2000-16, CEPII research center.
    13. Heinz-Dieter Smeets & Angélique Herzberg, 2010. "Staatliche Insolvenz in einer Währungsunion," Aussenwirtschaft, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science, Swiss Institute for International Economics and Applied Economics Research, vol. 65(4), pages 379-399, December.
    14. Barry Eichengreen, 2003. "Restructuring Sovereign Debt," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 17(4), pages 75-98, Fall.
    15. Michelle White, 2002. "Sovereigns in Distress: Do They Need Bankruptcy?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 33(1), pages 287-320.

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