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International hostility and aggressiveness on the soccer pitch Evidence from European Championships and World Cups for the period 2000-2012

  • Caruso, Raul
  • Di Domizio, Marco

Some Researchers consider soccer matches as the stylization of a war in other battlefields. Such approach was largely used to interpret the violent phenomena related to the soccer environment, while less attention has been paid to the «potential» role of political and economic interactions between countries in determining the aggressive attitude of players on the pitch. In our paper we empirically investigate if and how political hostility among countries reverberates on a soccer pitch by influencing players’ aggressiveness. The analysis focuses on official matches played by national teams in the final phases of the European and World Cup tournaments since 2000. We estimate a Negative Binomial regression including both political and sport variables, and we find that (a) commercial hostility; (b) the level of diplomatic relationships, (c) power asymmetry and (d) education gap between countries are positively and significantly associated with aggressiveness of the players on the pitch, approximated by the number of yellow and red cards. That is, briefly stated, international hostility reverberates into the pitch. Moreover, sport covariates present the expected signs, namely results show that the closeness of the teams, their ranking and the stage of the game (knockout stages with respect to the group phases) are also crucial in determining the cautions.

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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 50099.

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Date of creation: Mar 2013
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:50099
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  1. Poutvaara, Panu & Priks, Mikael, 2009. "The effect of police intelligence on group violence: Evidence from reassignments in Sweden," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(3-4), pages 403-411, April.
  2. repec:eap:articl:v39:y:2009:i:3:p:355-377 is not listed on IDEAS
  3. Edward Miguel & Sebastián M. Saiegh & Shanker Satyanath, 2008. "National Cultures and Soccer Violence," NBER Working Papers 13968, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Marie Olivier, 2010. "Police and Thieves in the Stadium: Measuring the (Multiple) Effects of Football Matches on Crime," Research Memorandum 044, Maastricht University, Maastricht Research School of Economics of Technology and Organization (METEOR).
  5. Raul Caruso, 2008. "Il calcio tra mercato, relazioni e coercizione," Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, Centro di diritto e business dello Sport, vol. 4(1), pages 71-88, Aprile.
  6. Greene, William, 2008. "Functional forms for the negative binomial model for count data," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 99(3), pages 585-590, June.
  7. Caruso, Raul, 2011. "Crime and sport participation: Evidence from Italian regions over the period 1997–2003," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 40(5), pages 455-463.
  8. José Cuesta & Camilo Boh�rquez, 2012. "Soccer and national culture: estimating the impact of violence on 22 lads after a ball," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(2), pages 147-161, January.
  9. Peter Dawson & Stephen Dobson & John Goddard & John Wilson, 2007. "Are football referees really biased and inconsistent?: evidence on the incidence of disciplinary sanction in the English Premier League," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 170(1), pages 231-250.
  10. Raul Caruso & Marco Di Domizio, 2012. "Hooliganism and demand for football in Italy. Evidence for the period 1962-2011," DISCE - Quaderni dell'Istituto di Politica Economica ispe0062, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimenti e Istituti di Scienze Economiche (DISCE).
  11. Caruso Raul, 2011. "On the Nature of Peace Economics," Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 16(2), pages 1-13, January.
  12. Paul Downward & Joseph Riordan, 2007. "Social Interactions And The Demand For Sport: An Economic Analysis," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 25(4), pages 518-537, October.
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