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Hooliganism and demand for football in Italy. Evidence for the period 1962-2011

  • Raul Caruso


    (DISCE, Università Cattolica)

  • Marco Di Domizio


    (Dipartimento di Scienze della comunicazione, Università di Teramo)

This paper investigates the impact of hooliganism on attendance in Italian stadium and the effect of anti-violence measures adopted by Italian Government in 2007. Results first show that a structural break took place on Serie A average attendance in season 1979/80. The econometric investigation focused on the average of tickets sold per game as dependent variable. We have found a robust negative impact of hooliganism and match-fixing scandals on stadium attendance. In the light of the previous results we focus on recent policy measures adopted by Italian authorities aiming at reducing hooliganism. These measures, grounded on a ‘fidelity card’, were designed to keep out the extreme and violent part of committed fans in favour of the uncommitted. According to our econometric investigation involving single match played in Serie A from season 2007/08 to 2011/12 the substitution effect failed and the ‘fidelity card’ strategy did not turn to be successful if considering the average attendance point of view.

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Paper provided by Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimenti e Istituti di Scienze Economiche (DISCE) in its series DISCE - Quaderni dell'Istituto di Politica Economica with number ispe0062.

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Length: 34
Date of creation: Nov 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ctc:serie5:ispe0062
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  1. Leif Brandes & Egon Franck, 2005. "Who made Who? An Empirical Analysis of Competitive Balance in European Soccer Leagues," Working Papers 0004, University of Zurich, Center for Research in Sports Administration (CRSA), revised 2006.
  2. Jeffery Borland, 2003. "Demand for Sport," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(4), pages 478-502, Winter.
  3. Borland, Jeff, 1987. "The Demand for Australian Rules Football," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 63(182), pages 220-30, September.
  4. Georg Stadtmann & Dirk Czarnitzki, 2002. "Uncertainty of outcome versus reputation: Empirical evidence for the First German Football Division," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 101-112.
  5. Alessandro Baroncelli & Raul Caruso, 2011. "The Organization And Economics Of Italian Serie A: A Brief Overall View," Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, Centro di diritto e business dello Sport, vol. 7(2), pages 67-85, September.
  6. Caruso, Raul, 2011. "Crime and sport participation: Evidence from Italian regions over the period 1997–2003," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 40(5), pages 455-463.
  7. Marco Di Domizio, 2007. "La domanda di calcio in Italia: serie A 1962-2006," Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, Centro di diritto e business dello Sport, vol. 3(1), pages 71-90, Maggio.
  8. Marco Di Domizio, 2010. "Competitive balance e audience televisva: una analisi empirica dalla Serie A italiana," Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, Centro di diritto e business dello Sport, vol. 6(1), pages 27-57, Aprile.
  9. B Buraimo & R Simmons, 2006. "Market size and attendance in English Premier League football," Working Papers 574562, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department.
  10. S. M. Dobson & J. A. Goddard, 1996. "The Demand for Football in the Regions of England and Wales," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(5), pages 443-453.
  11. Paul Downward & Joseph Riordan, 2007. "Social Interactions And The Demand For Sport: An Economic Analysis," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 25(4), pages 518-537, October.
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