IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/bpj/germec/v16y2015i2p123-137.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Hooliganism and Demand for Football in Italy: Attendance and Counterviolence Policy Evaluation

Author

Listed:
  • Di Domizio Marco

    (Political Sciences, University of Teramo, Teramo, Italy)

  • Caruso Raul

    (Center for Applied Economics (CSEA), Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, Italy)

Abstract

This paper empirically investigates the relationship between stadium attendance, hooliganism and counter-violence policy measures in Italian Serie A. In particular, this paper analyses the impact of counter-hooliganism policies adopted in 2007 on the quantity of game tickets sold. The counter-hooliganism measures, grounded on an entry card, namely a ‘fidelity card’, were designed to keep out hooligans from stadiums so favouring the attendance of either occasional spectators or uncommitted fans. According to our econometric investigation the expected substitution between committed fans and uncommitted fans did not take shape. In sum, the ‘fidelity card’ did not turn to be successful if evaluated on the average attendance perspective.

Suggested Citation

  • Di Domizio Marco & Caruso Raul, 2015. "Hooliganism and Demand for Football in Italy: Attendance and Counterviolence Policy Evaluation," German Economic Review, De Gruyter, vol. 16(2), pages 123-137, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:bpj:germec:v:16:y:2015:i:2:p:123-137
    DOI: 10.1111/geer.12051
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/geer.12051
    Download Restriction: For access to full text, subscription to the journal or payment for the individual article is required.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1111/geer.12051?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. S. M. Dobson & J. A. Goddard, 1996. "The Demand for Football in the Regions of England and Wales," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(5), pages 443-453.
    2. Olivier Marie, 2016. "Police and thieves in the stadium: measuring the (multiple) effects of football matches on crime," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 179(1), pages 273-292, January.
    3. David Forrest & Rob Simmons & Stefan Szymanski, 2010. "Broadcasting, Attendance and the Inefficiency of Cartels," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: Football Economics and Policy, chapter 5, pages 112-135, Palgrave Macmillan.
    4. Baimbridge, Mark & Cameron, Samuel & Dawson, Peter, 1996. "Satellite Television and the Demand for Football: A Whole New Ball Game?," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 43(3), pages 317-333, August.
    5. Wladimir Andreff & Stefan Szymanski (ed.), 2006. "Handbook on the Economics of Sport," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 3274.
    6. Jeffery Borland, 2003. "Demand for Sport," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(4), pages 478-502, Winter.
    7. B Buraimo & R Simmons, 2006. "Market size and attendance in English Premier League football," Working Papers 574562, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department.
    8. Rodney Fort & James Quirk, 1995. "Cross-subsidization, Incentives, and Outcomes in Professional Team Sports Leagues," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 33(3), pages 1265-1299, September.
    9. Dennis Coates & Brad R. Humphreys, 2011. "Game Attendance and Competitive Balance in the National Hockey League," UMBC Economics Department Working Papers 11-130, UMBC Department of Economics.
    10. David Forrest & Robert Simmons & Babatunde Buraimo, 2005. "Outcome Uncertainty And The Couch Potato Audience," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 52(4), pages 641-661, September.
    11. Wladimir Andreff & Stefan Szymanski, 2006. "Handbook on the Economics of Sport," Post-Print halshs-00275933, HAL.
    12. Raul Caruso, 2009. "The Basic Economics of Match Fixing in Sport Tournaments," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 355-377, December.
    13. repec:lan:wpaper:3573 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Babatunde Buraimo, 2008. "Stadium attendance and television audience demand in English league football," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 29(6), pages 513-523.
    15. Caruso, Raul, 2011. "Crime and sport participation: Evidence from Italian regions over the period 1997–2003," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 40(5), pages 455-463.
    16. Peel, David A & Thomas, Dennis A, 1988. "Outcome Uncertainty and the Demand for Football: An Analysis of Match Attendances in the English Football League," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 35(3), pages 242-249, August.
    17. Peel, David A & Thomas, Dennis A, 1992. "The Demand for Football: Some Evidence on Outcome Uncertainty," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 17(2), pages 323-331.
    18. Buraimo, Babatunde & Simmons, Rob, 2009. "A tale of two audiences: Spectators, television viewers and outcome uncertainty in Spanish football," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 61(4), pages 326-338, July.
    19. Alessandro Baroncelli & Raul Caruso, 2011. "The Organization And Economics Of Italian Serie A: A Brief Overall View," Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, Centro di diritto e business dello Sport, vol. 7(2), pages 67-85, September.
    20. Forrest, David & Simmons, Robert & Feehan, Patrick, 2002. "A Spatial Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Elasticity of Demand for Soccer," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 49(3), pages 336-355, August.
    21. John Goddard & Peter J. Sloane, 2005. "Economics of sport," Chapters, in: Simon W. Bowmaker (ed.), Economics Uncut, chapter 12, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    22. Marco Di Domizio, 2010. "Competitive balance e audience televisva: una analisi empirica dalla Serie A italiana," Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, Centro di diritto e business dello Sport, vol. 6(1), pages 27-57, Aprile.
    23. repec:lan:wpaper:3681 is not listed on IDEAS
    24. Grant Allan & Graeme Roy, 2008. "Does Television Crowd Out Spectators?," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 9(6), pages 592-605, December.
    25. Stefan Szymanski, 2010. "The Economic Design of Sporting Contests," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: The Comparative Economics of Sport, chapter 1, pages 1-78, Palgrave Macmillan.
    26. Olivier Marie, 2011. "Football Matches: the Effects on Crime," CentrePiece - The magazine for economic performance 348, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    27. Di Domizio Marco, 2010. "Competitive balance and TV audience: An empirical analysis on the Italian Serie A," wp.comunite 0064, Department of Communication, University of Teramo.
    28. repec:fth:geneec:00.04 is not listed on IDEAS
    29. Georg Stadtmann & Dirk Czarnitzki, 2002. "Uncertainty of outcome versus reputation: Empirical evidence for the First German Football Division," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 101-112.
    30. Paul Downward & Joseph Riordan, 2007. "Social Interactions And The Demand For Sport: An Economic Analysis," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 25(4), pages 518-537, October.
    31. Alessandra Tonazzi, 2003. "Competition policy and the commercialization of sport broadcasting rights: The decision of the Italian Competition Authority," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(1), pages 17-34.
    32. Poutvaara, Panu & Priks, Mikael, 2009. "The effect of police intelligence on group violence: Evidence from reassignments in Sweden," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(3-4), pages 403-411, April.
    33. Guillermo Villa & Isabel Molina & Roland Fried, 2011. "Modeling attendance at Spanish professional football league," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(6), pages 1189-1206, April.
    34. Vassiliki Avgerinou & Stefanos Giakoumatos, 2009. "Price, Income & Unemployment Effects on Greek Professional Football," Working Papers 0907, International Association of Sports Economists;North American Association of Sports Economists.
    35. repec:lan:wpaper:3966 is not listed on IDEAS
    36. Marco Di Domizio, 2007. "La domanda di calcio in Italia: serie A 1962-2006," Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, Centro di diritto e business dello Sport, vol. 3(1), pages 71-90, Maggio.
    37. Jaume García Villar & Plácido Rodríguez Guerrero, 2009. "Sports attendance: A survey of the Literature 1973-2007," Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, Centro di diritto e business dello Sport, vol. 5(2), pages 111-151, Settembre.
    38. Jennett, Nicholas I, 1984. "Attendances, Uncertainty of Outcome and Policy in Scottish League Football," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 31(2), pages 176-198, June.
    39. Jean-Marc Falter & Christophe Perignon, 2000. "Demand for football and intramatch winning probability: an essay on the glorious uncertainty of sports," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(13), pages 1757-1765.
    40. Cowie, Campbell & Williams, Mark, 1997. "The economics of sports rights," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 21(7), pages 619-634, August.
    41. Jaume García & Plácido Rodríguez, 2002. "The Determinants of Football Match Attendance Revisited," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 3(1), pages 18-38, February.
    42. Raul Caruso, 2008. "Il calcio tra mercato, relazioni e coercizione," Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, Centro di diritto e business dello Sport, vol. 4(1), pages 71-88, Aprile.
    43. Borland, Jeff, 1987. "The Demand for Australian Rules Football," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 63(182), pages 220-230, September.
    44. Jeff Borland, 1987. "The Demand for Australian Rules Football," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 63(3), pages 220-230, September.
    45. Peter T. Leeson & Daniel J. Smith & Nicholas A. Snow, 2012. "Hooligans," Revue d'économie politique, Dalloz, vol. 122(2), pages 213-231.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Raul Caruso & Marco Di Domizio & David A. Savage, 2015. "Hic Sunt Leones! The role of national identity on aggressiveness between national football teams," DISCE - Quaderni del Dipartimento di Politica Economica ispe0076, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimenti e Istituti di Scienze Economiche (DISCE).
    2. Dominik Schreyer & Sascha L. Schmidt & Benno Torgler, 2018. "Game Outcome Uncertainty in the English Premier League," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 19(5), pages 625-644, June.
    3. Schreyer, Dominik & Schmidt, Sascha L. & Torgler, Benno, 2016. "Against all odds? Exploring the role of game outcome uncertainty in season ticket holders’ stadium attendance demand," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 192-217.
    4. Daniel Montolio & Simón Planells-Struse, 2019. "Measuring the negative externalities of a private leisure activity: hooligans and pickpockets around the stadium," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(2), pages 465-504.
    5. J. James Reade & Dominik Schreyer & Carl Singleton, 2021. "Stadium attendance demand during the COVID-19 crisis: early empirical evidence from Belarus," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(18), pages 1542-1547, October.
    6. Raul Caruso & Francesco Addesa & Marco Di Domizio, 2019. "The Determinants of the TV Demand for Soccer: Empirical Evidence on Italian Serie A for the Period 2008-2015," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 20(1), pages 25-49, January.
    7. Caruso, Raul & Di Domizio, Marco & Savage, David A., 2015. "Determinants of aggressiveness on the soccer pitch: evidence from FIFA and UEFA tournaments," MPRA Paper 61459, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Dominik Schreyer & Sascha L. Schmidt & Benno Torgler, 2019. "Football Spectator No-Show Behavior," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 20(4), pages 580-602, May.
    9. Raul Caruso & Marco Di Domizio & David A. Savage, 2017. "Differences in National Identity, Violence and Conflict in International Sport Tournaments: Hic Sunt Leones!," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 70(4), pages 511-545, November.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Schreyer, Dominik & Schmidt, Sascha L. & Torgler, Benno, 2016. "Against all odds? Exploring the role of game outcome uncertainty in season ticket holders’ stadium attendance demand," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 192-217.
    2. Raul Caruso & Francesco Addesa & Marco Di Domizio, 2019. "The Determinants of the TV Demand for Soccer: Empirical Evidence on Italian Serie A for the Period 2008-2015," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 20(1), pages 25-49, January.
    3. Dorian Owen, 2014. "Measurement of competitive balance and uncertainty of outcome," Chapters, in: John Goddard & Peter Sloane (ed.), Handbook on the Economics of Professional Football, chapter 3, pages 41-59, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    4. António Miguel Martins & Susana Cró, 2018. "The Demand for Football in Portugal," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 19(4), pages 473-497, May.
    5. Budzinski, Oliver & Feddersen, Arne, 2015. "Grundlagen der Sportnachfrage: Theorie und Empirie der Einflussfaktoren auf die Zuschauernachfrage," Ilmenau Economics Discussion Papers 94, Ilmenau University of Technology, Institute of Economics.
    6. Dominik Schreyer & Sascha L. Schmidt & Benno Torgler, 2019. "Football Spectator No-Show Behavior," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 20(4), pages 580-602, May.
    7. Kevin Alavy & Alison Gaskell & Stephanie Leach & Stefan Szymanski, 2010. "On the Edge of Your Seat: Demand for Football on Television and the Uncertainty of Outcome Hypothesis," International Journal of Sport Finance, Fitness Information Technology, vol. 5(2), pages 75-95, May.
    8. Christian Gjersing Nielsen & Rasmus K. Storm & Tor Georg Jakobsen, 2019. "The impact of English Premier League broadcasts on Danish spectator demand: a small league perspective," Journal of Business Economics, Springer, vol. 89(6), pages 633-653, August.
    9. Mara Konjer & Henk Erik Meier & Katrin Wedeking, 2017. "Consumer Demand for Telecasts of Tennis Matches in Germany," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 18(4), pages 351-375, May.
    10. Dominik Schreyer & Sascha L. Schmidt & Benno Torgler, 2018. "Game Outcome Uncertainty in the English Premier League," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 19(5), pages 625-644, June.
    11. Raul Caruso & Marco Di Domizio, 2012. "Domanda Di Calcio E Violenza Negli Stadi: Un’Analisi Panel Sulla Serie A," Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, Centro di diritto e business dello Sport, vol. 8(2), pages 41-66, settembre.
    12. Buraimo, Babatunde & Simmons, Rob, 2009. "A tale of two audiences: Spectators, television viewers and outcome uncertainty in Spanish football," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 61(4), pages 326-338, July.
    13. Besters, Lucas, 2018. "Economics of professional football," Other publications TiSEM d9e6b9b7-a17b-4665-9cca-1, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    14. Ferda HALICIOGLU, 2005. "Forecasting the Professional Team Sporting Events: Evidence from Euro 2000 and 2004 Football Tournaments," Industrial Organization 0508001, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Dominik Schreyer & Benno Torgler, 2018. "On the Role of Race Outcome Uncertainty in the TV Demand for Formula 1 Grands Prix," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 19(2), pages 211-229, February.
    16. Tim Pawlowski, 2013. "Testing the Uncertainty of Outcome Hypothesis in European Professional Football," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 14(4), pages 341-367, August.
    17. Schreyer & Torgler Benno & Schmidt Sascha L., 2018. "Game Outcome Uncertainty and Television Audience Demand: New Evidence from German Football," German Economic Review, De Gruyter, vol. 19(2), pages 140-161, May.
    18. Scelles, Nicolas (Сели, Николя) & Duran, Christophe (Дюра, Кристоф) & Bonnal, Liliane (Бонналь, Лилиан) & Goyeau, Daniel (Гойюс, Даниэль) & Andreff, Wladimir (Андрефф, Владимир), 2016. "Do all sporting prizes have a significant positive impact on attendance in a European national football league? Competitive intensity in the French Ligue 1 [Действительно Ли Все Спортивные Призы Ок," Economic Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, vol. 3, pages 82-107, June.
    19. Raul Caruso & Marco Di Domizio, 2015. "La Serie A In Televisione E Allo Stadio: Presentazione Del Dataset Audiball 1.0," Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, Centro di diritto e business dello Sport, vol. 11(1), pages 161-185, maggio.
    20. B Buraimo & R Simmons, 2006. "Market size and attendance in English Premier League football," Working Papers 574562, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Hooliganism; stadium attendance; Italian Serie A; demand for football;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
    • K42 - Law and Economics - - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior - - - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
    • L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bpj:germec:v:16:y:2015:i:2:p:123-137. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://www.degruyter.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Peter Golla (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://www.degruyter.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.