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Trade, Reform, And Structural Transformation in South Korea

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  • Betts, Caroline
  • Giri, Rahul
  • Verma, Rubina

Abstract

A two country, three sector hybrid model of structural change with distortionary government policies is used to quantify the impact of international trade and trade reform for industrialization. The model features Arming- ton motivated trade in agriculture and industry, and a novel representation of trade reform as a time sequence of import tariffs, export subsidies and lump sum government transfers of net tariff revenue. We calibrate our economy to data on South Korea and the OECD, inputting time series of country and sector specific labor productivity, tariffs and export subsidies which determine evolution of the effective pattern of comparative advantage. The model’s predicted reallocations of Korean labor from agriculture into industry and services from 1963 through 2000 are quantitatively similar to those in the data. Incorporating trade and measured Korean trade reform are both important for the accuracy of this predicted structural change, although interna- tional real income differences under non-homothetic preferences primarily determine trade and specialization patterns rather than comparative advantage. Counterfactually eliminating a) international trade b) interna- tional labor productivity differentials c) post 1967 Korean tariff reform and d) post 1967 industrial export subsidy reform increase the model’s SSE by 91 percent, 56 percent, 27 percent, and 62 percent respectively.

Suggested Citation

  • Betts, Caroline & Giri, Rahul & Verma, Rubina, 2013. "Trade, Reform, And Structural Transformation in South Korea," MPRA Paper 49540, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:49540
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    Cited by:

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    4. Uy, Timothy & Yi, Kei-Mu & Zhang, Jing, 2013. "Structural change in an open economy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(6), pages 667-682.
    5. Herrendorf, Berthold & Rogerson, Richard & Valentinyi, Ákos, 2014. "Growth and Structural Transformation," Handbook of Economic Growth, in: Philippe Aghion & Steven Durlauf (ed.), Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 6, pages 855-941, Elsevier.
    6. Murat Ungor, 2017. "Productivity Growth and Labor Reallocation: Latin America versus East Asia," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 24, pages 25-42, March.
    7. Cai, Wenbiao, 2015. "Structural change accounting with labor market distortions," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 54-64.
    8. Wannaphong Durongkaveroj, 2021. "Structural transformation and inequality: Does trade openness matter?," Departmental Working Papers 2021-10, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
    9. Wenbiao Cai & B. Ravikumar & Raymond G. Riezman, 2015. "The Quantitative Importance Of Openness In Development," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 53(4), pages 1839-1849, October.
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    11. Pedro Cavalcanti Ferreira & Alexander Monge-Naranjo & Luciene Torres de Mello Pereira, 2014. "Education Policies and Structural Transformation," Working Papers 2014-39, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    12. Logan T. Lewis & Ryan Monarch & Michael Sposi & Jing Zhang, 2018. "Structural Change and Global Trade," International Finance Discussion Papers 1225, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    13. Mr. Constant A Lonkeng Ngouana, 2013. "Structural Transformation and the Volatility of Aggregate Output in OECD Countries," IMF Working Papers 2013/043, International Monetary Fund.
    14. Michelle Connolly & Kei-Mu Yi, 2015. "How Much of South Korea's Growth Miracle Can Be Explained by Trade Policy?," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 7(4), pages 188-221, October.
    15. Perez Sebastian,Fidel & Steinbuks,Jevgenijs & Feres,Jose Gustavo & Trotter,Ian Michael, 2020. "Electricity Access and Structural Transformation : Evidence from Brazil's Electrification," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9182, The World Bank.
    16. Murat Üngör, 2016. "Did the rising importance of services decelerate overall productivity improvement of Turkey during 2002–2007?," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 238-261, July.
    17. Juan Carlos Conesa & Matthew J. Delventhal & Pau S. Pujolas & Gajendran Raveendranathan, 2019. "Trade and Catching Up to the Industrial Leader," Department of Economics Working Papers 19-04, Stony Brook University, Department of Economics.
    18. Tomasz Swiecki, 2017. "Determinants of Structural Change," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 24, pages 95-131, March.
    19. Ryan Monarch & Jing Zhang & Logan Lewis, 2017. "Structural Change and Slowdown of International Trade," 2017 Meeting Papers 1542, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    20. Abhijit Sen Gupta & Vishal More & Kanupriya Gupta, 2018. "Why Generating Productive Jobs is Essential for Reducing Poverty in India: Evidence from Indian Regions," The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, Springer;The Indian Society of Labour Economics (ISLE), vol. 61(4), pages 563-587, December.
    21. Marian Gorski & Patrycja Chodnicka-Jaworska, 2019. "The Process of Catching up with the Economic Development of OECD Countries and the Role of Foreign Direct Investment in this Process," Book, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management, edition 1, volume 1, number y:2019:v:1:ch:8:p:165-186 edited by Justin Yifu Lin & Alojzy Z. Nowak, December.
    22. Li, Shang-ao & Gong, Liutang & Pan, Shan & Luo, Feng, 2020. "Wage and price differences, technology gap and labor flow dynamics," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 211-222.
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    24. Michael Sposi, 2015. "Navigating the Structure of the Global Economy," Annual Report, Globalization and Monetary Policy Institute, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, pages 10-17.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Liberalization; comparative advantage; import price; industrialization; structural change;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F1 - International Economics - - Trade
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • F4 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance
    • F43 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Economic Growth of Open Economies
    • O14 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology
    • O41 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models

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