Prevalence and Longitudinal Trends of Early Internationalisation Patterns among Canadian SMEs
Purpose: Recently, studies call for a more nuanced perspective on different internationalization patterns pursued by early internationalizers. These studies argue that most Born Global firms turn out to be Born Regional and that the proportion of true Born Global firms would be overestimated. Moreover, literature claims that the proportion of Born Global firms increases over time due to macroeconomic trends. We investigate these assumptions by providing a dynamic perspective on the prevalence of different types of internationalization patterns among Canadian small and medium-sized exporters (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach: To empirically examine the ideas above, we constructed a unique large-scale longitudinal (1997–2004) dataset. A multinomial logit model is employed to estimate a firm’s predicted probability, ceteris paribus, of choosing different internationalization patterns: Born Global, Born Regional, and Gradual Internationalization. Findings: We find that Born Global firms indeed account for a smaller proportion than Born Regional firms (16% vs. 27%). However, we find evidence that Born Globals and Born Regionals are increasingly established over time and that macroeconomic factors seem to account for this development at least partially. Originality/value Combining a rigorous empirical analysis with a unique large scale longitudinal dataset, we address two fundamental research questions in the international entrepreneurship (IE) literature a) which internationalization pattern prevails and b) if the Born Global pattern is increasingly established over time. We therewith theoretically contribute by comparing the predictive value of different internationalization frameworks international new venture (INV) framework, stage-models and regionalization hypothesis), toward which there is considerable current debate.
|Date of creation:||Jun 2012|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany|
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Alan M Rugman & Alain Verbeke, 2004.
"A perspective on regional and global strategies of multinational enterprises,"
Journal of International Business Studies,
Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 35(1), pages 3-18, January.
- Alan M. Rugman & Alain Verbeke, 2004. "A Perspective on Regional and Global Strategies of Multinational Enterprises," Working Papers 2004-19, Indiana University, Kelley School of Business, Department of Business Economics and Public Policy.
- Sergey Anokhin & Joakim Wincent, 2012. "Start-up rates and innovation: A cross-country examination," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 43(1), pages 41-60, January.
- Alan M Rugman & Alain Verbeke, 2003. "Extending the theory of the multinational enterprise: internalization and strategic management perspectives," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 34(2), pages 125-137, March.
- Tuppura, Anni & Saarenketo, Sami & Puumalainen, Kaisu & Jantunen, Ari & Kyläheiko, Kalevi, 2008. "Linking knowledge, entry timing and internationalization strategy," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 473-487, August.
- Keith Head & John Ries, 1998. "Immigration and Trade Creation: Econometric Evidence from Canada," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 31(1), pages 47-62, February.
- Kim P. Huynh & Robert J. Petrunia & Marcel Voia, 2010. "THE IMPACT OF INITIAL FINANCIAL STATE ON FIRM DURATION ACROSS ENTRY COHORTS -super-," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(3), pages 661-689, 09.
- Ram Mudambi & Shaker A Zahra, 2007. "The survival of international new ventures," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 38(2), pages 333-352, March.
- Kuivalainen, Olli & Saarenketo, Sami & Puumalainen, Kaisu, 2012. "Start-up patterns of internationalization: A framework and its application in the context of knowledge-intensive SMEs," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 372-385.
- Paul D Ellis, 2008. "Does psychic distance moderate the market size–entry sequence relationship?," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 39(3), pages 351-369, April.
- Kuivalainen, Olli & Sundqvist, Sanna & Servais, Per, 2007. "Firms' degree of born-globalness, international entrepreneurial orientation and export performance," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 253-267, September.
- McDougall, Patricia Phillips & Oviatt, Benjamin M., 1996. "New venture internationalization, strategic change, and performance: A follow-up study," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 23-40, January.
- repec:bbe:wpaper:200211 is not listed on IDEAS
- Rugman, Alan M. & Oh, Chang Hoon, 2010. "Does the regional nature of multinationals affect the multinationality and performance relationship?," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 479-488, October.
- Preece, Stephen B. & Miles, Grant & Baetz, Mark C., 1999. "Explaining the international intensity and global diversity of early-stage technology-based firms," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 259-281, May.
- Coviello, Nicole E. & Jones, Marian V., 2004. "Methodological issues in international entrepreneurship research," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 485-508, July.
- Luis E Lopez & Sumit K Kundu & Luciano Ciravegna, 2009. "Born global or born regional? Evidence from an exploratory study in the Costa Rican software industry," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 40(7), pages 1228-1238, September.
- Alan M Rugman & Alain Verbeke, 2007. "Liabilities of regional foreignness and the use of firm-level versus country-level data: a response to Dunning et al. (2007)," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 38(1), pages 200-205, January.
- Roper, Stephen & Love, James H., 2002. "Innovation and export performance: evidence from the UK and German manufacturing plants," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1087-1102, September.
- J. Stephen Ferris, 2010. "Quantifying Non-Tariff Trade Barriers: What Difference Did 9/11 Make to Canadian Cross-Border Shopping?," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 36(4), pages 487-501, December.
- Terence Fan & Phillip Phan, 2007. "International new ventures: revisiting the influences behind the ‘born-global’ firm," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 38(7), pages 1113-1131, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:41177. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.