Sexual orientation and social exclusion in Italy
This work explores the role of discrimination in shaping individuals’ lives and opportunities, with specific respect to sexual orientation. The role of sexual orientation in explaining earning differences has been increasingly emphasized in empirical literature on discrimination mainly as a result of the growing availability of data sources on gays and lesbian populations. Available evidence predominantly converges on the one hand on the identification of discrimination treatments for gays and positive wage differential for lesbian women with respect to heterosexual counterparts. On the other hand, disagreement pervades interpretations of the predominant above-described labour market outcome. In trying to move beyond such conflicting views, we consider a holistic approach to social exclusion, defined as individuals’ ability to fully participate to social life by examining five domains: monetary poverty, labour market attachment, housing conditions, subjective well-being, and education. Three samples of different waves of the Banca d’Italia “Survey on household income and wealth” (SHIW - 2006, 2008 and 2010) were pooled in order to perform the empirical analysis on a reasonably sized sample of heterosexual couples identified according to a cohabitation criteria. Following the SHIW characteristics and definition of household, we are able to differentiate homosexual couples belonging to a sub-population of out same-sex couples from those who are not openly out about their homosexual relationship. We develop an understanding of social exclusion as a non-dichotomous concept (that is, one is not necessarily “included” or “excluded”, but a continuum of intermediate conditions exist) through fuzzy analysis techniques and develop a synthetic index of inclusion/exclusion as well as a number of partial indexes, composed of several variables pertaining to a certain domain. Overall indicators of social exclusion are examined for the full sample and for the sub-sample of workers only, comparing individuals cohabiting in same-sex couples with heterosexual counterparts. Our results point out that a significant and non-negligible portion of the social exclusion suffered by lesbian and gay couples cannot be accounted for by observable factors and may therefore be attributed to the impact of discrimination. Coherently with the existing literature, we find a differentiated impact on gay men and lesbian couples. However, and possibly more relevantly, we also find significant differences between the couples of “out” homosexual individuals and those composed of “closeted” individuals.
|Date of creation:||12 Feb 2012|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Nathan Berg & Donald Lien, 2002. "Measuring The Effect Of Sexual Orientation On Income: Evidence Of Discrimination?," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 20(4), pages 394-414, October.
- Andrea Brandolini, 2008. "On applying synthetic indices of multidimensional well-being: health and income inequalities in selected EU countries," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 668, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
- Marieka M. Klawitter & Victor Flatt, 1998. "The effects of state and local antidiscrimination policies on earnings for gays and lesbians," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(4), pages 658-686.
- Jose Manuel Roche, 2008. "Monitoring Inequality among Social Groups: A Methodology Combining Fuzzy Set Theory and Principal Component Analysis," Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(3), pages 427-452.
- Christopher S. Carpenter, 2005. "Self-reported sexual orientation and earnings: Evidence from California," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 58(2), pages 258-273, January.
- Mozaffar Qizilbash & David Clark, 2005. "The Capability Approach and Fuzzy Poverty Measures: An Application to the South African Context," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 74(1), pages 103-139, October.
- Dan Black & Gary Gates & Seth Sanders & Lowell Taylor, 2000.
"Demographics of the gay and lesbian population in the United States: Evidence from available systematic data sources,"
Springer, vol. 37(2), pages 139-154, May.
- Dan Black & Gary Gates & Seth Sanders & Lowell Taylor, 1999. "Demographics of the Gay and Lesbian Population in the United States: Evidence from Available Systematic Data Sources," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 12, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
- Booth, Alison L. & Frank, Jeff, 2008.
"Marriage, Partnership and Sexual Orientation: A Study of British University Academics and Administrators,"
IZA Discussion Papers
3510, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Alison Booth & Jeff Frank, 2008. "Marriage, partnership and sexual orientation: a study of British university academics and administrators," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 6(4), pages 409-422, December.
- Nick Drydakis, 2007. "Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the Labour Market," Working Papers 0832, University of Crete, Department of Economics, revised 00 2008.
- Fabrizio Botti & Marcella Corsi & Carlo D'Ippoliti, 2012. "The gendered nature of multidimensional poverty in the European Union," Working Papers CEB 12-026, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Alkire, Sabina & Foster, James, 2011.
"Counting and multidimensional poverty measurement,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 95(7), pages 476-487.
- Dan A. Black & Hoda R. Makar & Seth G. Sanders & Lowell J. Taylor, 2003.
"The earnings effects of sexual orientation,"
Industrial and Labor Relations Review,
ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 56(3), pages 449-469, April.
- Berenger, Valerie & Verdier-Chouchane, Audrey, 2007. "Multidimensional Measures of Well-Being: Standard of Living and Quality of Life Across Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 1259-1276, July.
- Suzanne Heller Clain & Karen Leppel, 2001. "An investigation into sexual orientation discrimination as an explanation for wage differences," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(1), pages 37-47.
- Sylvia A. Allegretto & Michelle M. Arthur, 2001. "An Empirical analysis of homosexual/heterosexual male earnings differentials: Unmarried and unequal?," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 54(3), pages 631-646, April.
- Carpenter, Christopher S., 2007. "Revisiting the income penalty for behaviorally gay men: Evidence from NHANES III," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 25-34, January.
- Bruce Elmslie & Edinaldo Tebaldi, 2007. "Sexual Orientation and Labor Market Discrimination," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 28(3), pages 436-453, July.
- Christopher Carpenter, 2008. "Sexual orientation, income, and non-pecuniary economic outcomes: new evidence from young lesbians in Australia," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 6(4), pages 391-408, December.
- Mozaffar Qizilbash, 2001. "Vague language and precise measurement: the case of poverty," Journal of Economic Methodology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(1), pages 41-58.
- Edinaldo Tebaldi & Bruce Elmslie, 2006. "Sexual orientation and labour supply," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(5), pages 549-562.
- Guido Heineck, 2009. "Sexual orientation and earnings: evidence from the ISSP," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(13), pages 1351-1354.
- Dan A. Black & Seth G. Sanders & Lowell J. Taylor, 2007. "The Economics of Lesbian and Gay Families," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(2), pages 53-70, Spring.
- Joseph Deutsch & Jacques Silber, 2005. "Measuring Multidimensional Poverty: An Empirical Comparison Of Various Approaches," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 51(1), pages 145-174, 03.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:39246. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.