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Efficiency and Sustainability of Micro Finance

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  • Qayyum, Abdul
  • Ahmad, Munir

Abstract

The objective of this study has been to estimate the efficiency and sustainability of microfinance institution working in the South Asian countries such as Bangladesh, Pakistan and India. For the efficiency analysis we used non parametric Data Envelopment Analysis. We considered both inputs oriented and output oriented methods by assuming constant returns to scale and variable returns to scale technologies. While conducting DEA analysis using single country data we found that eight MFIs from Pakistan, six MFIs from Bangladesh and five MFIs from India are at the efficient frontier under variable returns to scale. The technical efficiency figures for Pakistan, Bangladesh and India are 0.395, 0.087, and 0.28, respectively, while average pure technical efficiencies for these countries respectively range between 0.713-0.823, 0.175-0.547 and 0.413-0.452. Three countries combine analysis revealed that there are two efficient MFIs under CRS and five efficient MFIs under VRS assumption in these countries. Out of these efficient MFIs three -Annesa, BARC and Grameen Bank, belong to Bangladesh, and two MFIs - Bodhana and Pushtikar, are from India. No MFI from Pakistan was found operating on the efficient frontier. The analysis further reveals that the inefficiencies of MFIs in Pakistan, India and Bangladesd are mainly of technical nature. The results have an important policy implication that in order to improve the efficiency of the MFIs there is need to enhance the managerial skills and improve technology. This could be done by imparting training. Since Grameen bank is the leading MFIs in the world we can adopt its model according to the country specific requirements. Particularly, the lagging countries like Pakistan and India require special training programmes in the field of microfinance management.

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  • Qayyum, Abdul & Ahmad, Munir, 2006. "Efficiency and Sustainability of Micro Finance," MPRA Paper 11674, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:11674
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    Cited by:

    1. Kalbe Abbas & Manzoor Hussain Malik, 2008. "Impact of Financial Liberalisation and Deregulation on Banking Sector in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 47(3), pages 287-313.
    2. Ben Bassem, 2008. "Efficiency of Microfinance Institutions in the Mediterranean: An Application of DEA," Transition Studies Review, Springer;Central Eastern European University Network (CEEUN), vol. 15(2), pages 343-354, September.
    3. Swati Chauhan, 2021. "Social and Financial Efficiency: A Study of Indian Microfinance Institutions," IIM Kozhikode Society & Management Review, , vol. 10(1), pages 31-43, January.
    4. Simon Cornée & Gervais Thenet, 2015. "Efficience des institutions de microfinance en Bolivie et au Pérou : une approche Data Envelopment Analysis en deux étapes," Economics Working Paper Archive (University of Rennes 1 & University of Caen) 201516, Center for Research in Economics and Management (CREM), University of Rennes 1, University of Caen and CNRS.
    5. Bairagi, Subir, 2014. "Productivity and Efficiency Analysis of Microfinance Institutions (MFIS) in Bangladesh," MPRA Paper 67917, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. M Nadiya & Francisco Olivares-Polanco & T Radha Ramanan, 2012. "Dangers in Mismanaging the Factors Affecting the Operational Self-Sustainability (OSS) of Indian Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) - An Exploration into Indian Microfinance Crisis," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 2(3), pages 448-462, July.
    7. KABLAN, Sandrine, 2012. "Microfinance efficiency in the West African Economic and Monetary Union: have reforms promoted sustainability or outreach?," MPRA Paper 39955, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Thomas Bolli & Anh Vo Thi, 2012. "On the Estimation Stability of Efficiency and Economies of Scale in Microfinance Institutions," KOF Working papers 12-296, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
    9. SAIF Ullah, 2020. "Role Of Corporate Governance In Bank’S Efficiency In Pakistan," Studies in Busine and Economics, Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Faculty of Economic Sciences, vol. 15(1), pages 243-258, April.
    10. Zahoor Khan & Jamalludin Sulaiman, 2015. "Social and Financial Efficiency of Microfinance Institutions in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 54(4), pages 389-403.
    11. Sandrine A. Kablan & Jean-phillipe Boussemart, 2015. "Bootstrapping efficiency scores of microfinance institutions in West African economic and monetary union," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 35(4), pages 2220-2232.
    12. Fall, François & Akim, Al-mouksit & Wassongma, Harouna, 2018. "DEA and SFA research on the efficiency of microfinance institutions: A meta-analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 176-188.
    13. Ahmad, Usman, 2011. "Efficiency Analysis of Micro-finance Institutions in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 34215, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Wijesiri, Mahinda & Viganò, Laura & Meoli, Michele, 2015. "Efficiency of microfinance institutions in Sri Lanka: a two-stage double bootstrap DEA approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 74-83.
    15. M. Kabir Hassan & Benito Sanchez & Geoffrey Ngene, 2012. "Scales and technical efficiencies in Middle East and North African (MENA) micro financial institutions," International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 5(2), pages 157-170, June.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    microfinance institution (MFI); efficiency; Data Envelopment Analysis; Bangladesh; Pakistan; India; South Asia;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • N25 - Economic History - - Financial Markets and Institutions - - - Asia including Middle East
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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