Efficiency and Sustainability of Micro Finance
The objective of this study has been to estimate the efficiency and sustainability of microfinance institution working in the South Asian countries such as Bangladesh, Pakistan and India. For the efficiency analysis we used non parametric Data Envelopment Analysis. We considered both inputs oriented and output oriented methods by assuming constant returns to scale and variable returns to scale technologies. While conducting DEA analysis using single country data we found that eight MFIs from Pakistan, six MFIs from Bangladesh and five MFIs from India are at the efficient frontier under variable returns to scale. The technical efficiency figures for Pakistan, Bangladesh and India are 0.395, 0.087, and 0.28, respectively, while average pure technical efficiencies for these countries respectively range between 0.713-0.823, 0.175-0.547 and 0.413-0.452. Three countries combine analysis revealed that there are two efficient MFIs under CRS and five efficient MFIs under VRS assumption in these countries. Out of these efficient MFIs three -Annesa, BARC and Grameen Bank, belong to Bangladesh, and two MFIs - Bodhana and Pushtikar, are from India. No MFI from Pakistan was found operating on the efficient frontier. The analysis further reveals that the inefficiencies of MFIs in Pakistan, India and Bangladesd are mainly of technical nature. The results have an important policy implication that in order to improve the efficiency of the MFIs there is need to enhance the managerial skills and improve technology. This could be done by imparting training. Since Grameen bank is the leading MFIs in the world we can adopt its model according to the country specific requirements. Particularly, the lagging countries like Pakistan and India require special training programmes in the field of microfinance management.
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