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Estimating the Middle Class in Pakistan

  • Durr-e-Nayab

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

The concept ‘middle class’ is one of the most commonly used terms in the social sciences, including economics, sociology and political science. Despite its frequent use there is, however, no consensus on what the term exactly implies and its meaning remains ambiguous depending primarily on the context in which it is used. It is viewed as the class that is between, and separates, the lower and the upper classes, that is the rich and the poor, but there is no agreement on the exact boundaries that separates them. Most of the definitions and measurements of the middle class continue to be somewhat arbitrary and vague.

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File URL: http://www.pide.org.pk/pdf/Working%20Paper/WorkingPaper-77.pdf
File Function: First Version, 2011
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Paper provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its series PIDE-Working Papers with number 2011:77.

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Length: 37 pages
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:pid:wpaper:2011:77
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Web page: http://www.pide.org.pk
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  1. Bourguignon, F. & Chakravarty, S.R., 1998. "The Measurement of Multidimensional Poverty," DELTA Working Papers 98-12, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
  2. Peichl, Andreas & Schaefer, Thilo & Scheicher, Christoph, 2008. "Measuring Richness and Poverty: A Micro Data Application to Europe and Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 3790, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Andrea Brandolini & Silvia Magri & Timothy M. Smeeding, 2010. "Asset-based measurement of poverty," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 755, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  4. Anthony B. Atkinson & Andrea Brandolini, 2011. "On the identification of the “middle class”," Working Papers 217, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
  5. Singh, Nirvikar, 2005. "The Idea of South Asia and the Role of the Middle Class," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt3868p628, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
  6. Esteban, Joan & Ray, Debraj, 1999. "Conflict and Distribution," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 379-415, August.
  7. Easterly, William, 2001. " The Middle Class Consensus and Economic Development," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 6(4), pages 317-35, December.
  8. Chun, Natalie, 2010. "Middle Class Size in the Past, Present, and Future: A Description of Trends in Asia," ADB Economics Working Paper Series 217, Asian Development Bank.
  9. Milanovic, Branko & Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 2002. "Decomposing World Income Distribution: Does the World Have a Middle Class?," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 48(2), pages 155-78, June.
  10. Michal Brzezinski, 2010. "Income Affluence in Poland," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 99(2), pages 285-299, November.
  11. Banerjee, Abhijit & Duflo, Esther, 2007. "What is Middle Class about the Middle Classes Around the World?," CEPR Discussion Papers 6613, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  12. Kolm, Serge-Christophe, 1977. "Multidimensional Egalitarianisms," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 91(1), pages 1-13, February.
  13. Andrea Brandolini & Silvia Magri & Timothy M. Smeeding, 2010. "Asset-based measurement of poverty," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 29(2), pages 267-284.
  14. Chiara GIGLIARANO & Karl MOSLER, 2009. "Measuring middle-class decline in one and many attributes," Working Papers 333, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
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