Estimating the Middle Class in Pakistan
The middle class is primarily an urban phenomenon generally associated with professional occupations, service sector and salaried jobs. Yet despite a general acceptance of the important economic, political and social role that the middle class plays in society, the term itself remains ambiguous and arbitrary. In much of recent literature the middle class is equated with middle income which does not reflect what „class? refers to in classical writings. The present paper takes a multidimensional approach to measure the middle class in Pakistan through a weighted composite index that takes into account all possible factors associated with the concept, including income, occupation, education, housing and lifestyle. Using the Pakistan Social and Living Measurement Survey (PSLM) 2007-08, the magnitude of the middle class in the country, as represented by the „expanded middle class?, is estimated at around 35 percent of the total population. The proposed measure of the middle class has a sense of stability attached to it, making it less susceptible to sudden inflationary shocks than an income-based measure.
Volume (Year): 50 (2011)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.pide.org.pk
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Peichl, Andreas & Schaefer, Thilo & Scheicher, Christoph, 2008.
"Measuring Richness and Poverty: A Micro Data Application to Europe and Germany,"
IZA Discussion Papers
3790, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Andreas Peichl & Thilo Schaefer & Christoph Scheicher, 2010. "Measuring Richness And Poverty: A Micro Data Application To Europe And Germany," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 56(3), pages 597-619, 09.
- Esteban, Joan & Ray, Debraj, 1999. "Conflict and Distribution," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 379-415, August.
- Andrea Brandolini & Silvia Magri & Timothy M. Smeeding, 2010. "Asset-based measurement of poverty," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 755, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
- Banerjee, Abhijit & Duflo, Esther, 2007.
"What is Middle Class about the Middle Classes Around the World?,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
6613, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Abhijit V. Banerjee & Esther Duflo, 2008. "What Is Middle Class about the Middle Classes around the World?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 22(2), pages 3-28, Spring.
- Esther Duflo & Abhijit Banerjee, 2008. "What is Middle Class About the Middle Classes Around the World?," Working Papers id:1363, eSocialSciences.
- Singh, Nirvikar, 2005.
"The Idea of South Asia and the Role of the Middle Class,"
Santa Cruz Center for International Economics, Working Paper Series
qt3868p628, Center for International Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
- Singh, Nirvikar, 2005. "The Idea of South Asia and the Role of the Middle Class," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt1ph1x8dv, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
- Singh, Nirvikar, 2005. "The idea of South Asia and the role of the middle class," MPRA Paper 1277, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Singh, Nirvikar, 2005. "The Idea of South Asia and the Role of the Middle Class," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt3868p628, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
- Kolm, Serge-Christophe, 1977. "Multidimensional Egalitarianisms," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 91(1), pages 1-13, February.
- Michal Brzezinski, 2010. "Income Affluence in Poland," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 99(2), pages 285-299, November.
- Anthony B. Atkinson & Andrea Brandolini, 2011. "On the identification of the “middle class”," Working Papers 217, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
- Milanovic, Branko & Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 2002.
"Decomposing World Income Distribution: Does the World Have a Middle Class?,"
Review of Income and Wealth,
International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 48(2), pages 155-78, June.
- Milanovic, Branko & Shlomo Yitzhaki, 2001. "Decomposing world income distribution : does the world have a middle class ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2562, The World Bank.
- Easterly, William, 2001.
" The Middle Class Consensus and Economic Development,"
Journal of Economic Growth,
Springer, vol. 6(4), pages 317-35, December.
- Easterly, William, 2000. "the middle class consensus and economic development," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2346, The World Bank.
- Bourguignon, F. & Chakravarty, S.R., 1998.
"The Measurement of Multidimensional Poverty,"
DELTA Working Papers
98-12, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
- Chun, Natalie, 2010. "Middle Class Size in the Past, Present, and Future: A Description of Trends in Asia," ADB Economics Working Paper Series 217, Asian Development Bank.
- Andrea Brandolini & Silvia Magri & Timothy M. Smeeding, 2010. "Asset-based measurement of poverty," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 29(2), pages 267-284.
- Chiara GIGLIARANO & Karl MOSLER, 2009. "Measuring middle-class decline in one and many attributes," Working Papers 333, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:50:y:2011:i:1:p:1-28. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Khurram Iqbal)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.