The rich, the poor, and the middle class: Thresholds and intensity indices
This paper contributes to the literature on the measurement of social classes by providing a wealth threshold for distinguishing the rich from the middle class and an intensity index for measuring the extent of affluence within a country. The empirical applicability of this approach is then illustrated with household-level survey data from the Bank of Italy; the results show an unambiguous decline in poverty and an increase in affluence in Italy between 2002 and 2004. Moreover, the findings indicate that social class is statistically linked to age, gender, marital status, household size, education, employment, and geography.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Riccardo Massari & Maria Pittau & Roberto Zelli, 2009. "A dwindling middle class? Italian evidence in the 2000s," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 7(4), pages 333-350, December.
- Andreas Peichl & Thilo Schaefer & Christoph Scheicher, 2010.
"Measuring Richness And Poverty: A Micro Data Application To Europe And Germany,"
Review of Income and Wealth,
International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 56(3), pages 597-619, 09.
- Peichl, Andreas & Schaefer, Thilo & Scheicher, Christoph, 2008. "Measuring Richness and Poverty: A Micro Data Application to Europe and Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 3790, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Paola Profeta, 2007. "Political support and tax reforms with an application to Italy," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 131(1), pages 141-155, April.
- Francesco Devicienti & Valentina Gualtieri, 2007. "The Dynamics and Persistence of Poverty: Evidence from Italy," LABORatorio R. Revelli Working Papers Series 63, LABORatorio R. Revelli, Centre for Employment Studies.
- Francesco Devicienti & Valentina Gualtieri & Mariacristina Rossi, 2010. "The Dynamics and Persistence of Poverty: Evidence from Italy," Carlo Alberto Notebooks 173, Collegio Carlo Alberto.
- Carol Graham & Stefano Pettinato & Nancy Birdsall, 2000. "Stuck in the Tunnel: Is Globalization Muddling the Middle Class?," LIS Working papers 277, LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg.
- Conchita D'Ambrosio & Joseph Deutsch & Jacques Silber, 2009. "Multidimensional approaches to poverty measurement: an empirical analysis of poverty in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy and Spain, based on the European panel," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(8), pages 951-961.
- Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-766, May.
- Thomas Piketty & Emmanuel Saez, 2003. "Income Inequality in the United States, 1913–1998," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(1), pages 1-41.
- Alworth, Julian & Arachi, Giampaolo & Hamaui, Rony, 2003. ""What's Come to Perfection Perishes*": Adjusting Capital Gains Taxation in Italy," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 56(1), pages 197-219, March.
- Jerome Creel & Jacques Le Cacheux, 2003. "Inflation divergence and public deficits in a monetary union," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2003-05, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
- Jérôme Creel & Jacques Le Cacheux, 2003. "Inflation Divergence and Public Deficits In an Monetary Union," Sciences Po publications N° 2003-05, Sciences Po.
- Jérôme Creel & Jacques Le Cacheux, 2003. "Inflation Divergence and Public Deficits In an Monetary Union," Working Papers hal-01065062, HAL.
- Tito Boeri & Andrea Brandolini, 2004. "The Age of Discontent: Italian Households at the Beginning of the Decade," Giornale degli Economisti, GDE (Giornale degli Economisti e Annali di Economia), Bocconi University, vol. 63(3-4), pages 449-487, December.
- Boeri, Tito & Brandolini, Andrea, 2005. "The Age of Discontent: Italian Households at the Beginning of the Decade," IZA Discussion Papers 1530, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Udo Ebert & Patrick Moyes, 2002. "A Simple Axiomatization of the Foster, Greer and Thorbecke Poverty Orderings," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 4(4), pages 455-473, October.
- Udo Ebert & Patrick Moyes, 2002. "A simple axiomatization of the Foster, Greer, and Thornbecke poverty orderings," Post-Print hal-00156460, HAL.
- Bellettini, Giorgio & Berti Ceroni, Carlotta, 2007. "Income distribution, borrowing constraints and redistributive policies," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 625-645, April.
- G. BellettiniC Berti Ceroni, 1999. "Income Distribution, Borrowing Constraints and Redistributive Policies," Working Papers 359, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
- Joseph Eisenhauer, 2008. "An Economic Definition of the Middle Class," Forum for Social Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(2), pages 103-113, January.
- Marcelo Medeiros, 2006. "Poverty, inequality and redistribution: A methodology to define the rich," Working Papers 18, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth.
- Chiara GIGLIARANO & Karl MOSLER, 2009. "Measuring middle-class decline in one and many attributes," Working Papers 333, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
- Tindara Addabbo, 2000. "Poverty Dynamics: Analysis of Household Incomes in Italy," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 14(1), pages 119-144, 03.
- Joseph Eisenhauer, 2008. "An Economic Definition of the Middle Class," Forum for Social Economics, Springer;The Association for Social Economics, vol. 37(2), pages 103-113, August.
- John C. Weicher, 1997. "The rich and the poor: demographics of the U.S. wealth distribution," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jul, pages 25-37.
- Karen E. Dynan & Jonathan Skinner & Stephen P. Zeldes, 2004. "Do the Rich Save More?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(2), pages 397-444, April.
- Karen E. Dynan & Jonathan Skinner & Stephen P. Zeldes, 2000. "Do the Rich Save More?," NBER Working Papers 7906, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Karen E. Dynan & Jonathan Skinner & Stephen Zeldes, 2000. "Do the rich save more?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2000-52, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Birdsall, N. & Graham, C. & Pettinato, S., 2000. "Stuck in the Tunnel: Is Globalization Muddling the Middle Class?," Papers 14, Brookings Institution - Working Papers.
- Satya R. Chakravarty & Pietro Muliere, 2004. "Welfare indicators: a review and new perspectives. 2. Measurement of poverty," Metron - International Journal of Statistics, Dipartimento di Statistica, Probabilità e Statistiche Applicate - University of Rome, vol. 0(2), pages 247-281.
- Richard ANKER, 2006. "Poverty lines around the world: A new methodology and internationally comparable estimates," International Labour Review, International Labour Organization, vol. 145(4), pages 279-307, December. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)