IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/phd/dpaper/dp_2004-46.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Evaluating the Impacts of Competition Policy Reforms on the Efficiency of Philippine Commercial Banks

Author

Listed:
  • Lamberte, Mario B.
  • Manlagnit, Ma. Chelo V.

Abstract

This paper has attempted to examine the impacts of competition policy reforms on the efficiency of the Philippine commercial banking system. It uses the stochastic frontier approach to come up with estimates of profit efficiency and cost inefficiency measures. The results are quite interesting. First, the average measured profit efficiency is 0.85, implying that on the average the commercial banks are using only 85 percent of their resources efficiently compared to the best practice commercial bank in the system producing the same output and facing the same conditions. On the other hand, the average measured cost inefficiency of the commercial banks is 1.39, suggesting that, on average, 39 percent of the commercial bank’s costs are wasted relative to the best-practice commercial bank in the system producing the same output and facing the same conditions. Second, some improvements in banks’ profit and cost efficiency can be observed after the liberalization of the entry of foreign banks in 1994, but these improvements were halted when the East Asian financial crisis occurred. Some improvements in profit and cost efficiency can again be observed after the passage of the General Banking Law in 2000 that liberalized further the entry of foreign banks. Third, small banks are found to be more profit and cost efficient than large banks. Fourth, foreign banks are generally more profit and cost efficient than domestic banks. However, these differences widen during crisis period and narrow during stable economic conditions. Fifth, profit efficiency of merged banks dropped more sharply than nonmerged banks after 1998, but eventually recovered and approximated that of nonmerged banks in 2002. Also, merged banks’ cost inefficiency dropped sharply in 2000 and since then has remained much lower than that of nonmerged banks. Sixth, some factors, such as agency problem, governance and market characteristics appear to be significantly correlated with measured efficiencies of banks. These results have important policy implications. First, the liberalization of the banking system has generally produced positive results in terms of improving profit and cost efficiencies of banks. Second, improvement in profit and cost efficiencies of domestic banks brought about by greater competition cannot be sustained unless it is accompanied by improvement in prudential regulations and supervision. Third, M&A policy pursued by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas appears to be complementary policy for improving profit and cost efficiencies of banks. Fourth, understanding the nature and extent of the impact of some correlates of measured efficiencies can help authorities in designing appropriate regulatory and supervisory framework for banks.

Suggested Citation

  • Lamberte, Mario B. & Manlagnit, Ma. Chelo V., 2004. "Evaluating the Impacts of Competition Policy Reforms on the Efficiency of Philippine Commercial Banks," Discussion Papers DP 2004-46, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.
  • Handle: RePEc:phd:dpaper:dp_2004-46
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://serp-p.pids.gov.ph/serp-p/download.php?d=3008&s=3
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Loretta J. Mester, 1989. "Testing for Expense Preference Behavior: Mutual versus Stock Savings and Loans," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 20(4), pages 483-498, Winter.
    2. Steven J. Pilloff & Anthony M. Santomero, 1996. "The Value Effects of Bank Mergers and Acquisitions," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 97-07, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
    3. Milo, Melanie S., 2001. "Deregulation of Bank Entry and Branching: Impact on Competition," Discussion Papers DP 2001-27, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.
    4. Vivas, Ana Lozano, 1997. "Profit efficiency for Spanish savings banks," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 381-394, April.
    5. Vander Vennet, Rudi, 2002. "Cost and Profit Efficiency of Financial Conglomerates and Universal Banks in Europe," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(1), pages 254-282, February.
    6. Kumbhakar, Subal C, et al, 2001. "The Effects of Deregulation on the Performance of Financial Institutions: The Case of Spanish Savings Banks," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(1), pages 101-120, February.
    7. Hasan, Iftekhar & Lozano-Vivas, Ana, 2002. "Organizational Form and Expense Preference: Spanish Experience," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 54(2), pages 135-150, April.
    8. Berger, Allen N. & Humphrey, David B., 1997. "Efficiency of financial institutions: International survey and directions for future research," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 175-212, April.
    9. Timothy H. Hannan & Ferdinand Mavinga, 1980. "Expense Preference and Managerial Control: the Case of the Banking Firm," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 11(2), pages 671-682, Autumn.
    10. H.P. Huizinga & J.H.M. Nelissen & R. Vander Vennet, 2001. "Efficiency Effects of Bank Mergers and Acquisitions," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 01-088/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    11. Berger, Allen N. & DeYoung, Robert, 1997. "Problem loans and cost efficiency in commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 849-870, June.
    12. Mitchell, Karlyn & Onvural, Nur M, 1996. "Economies of Scale and Scope at Large Commercial Banks: Evidence from the Fourier Flexible Functional Form," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(2), pages 178-199, May.
    13. Ferrier, Gary D. & Lovell, C. A. Knox, 1990. "Measuring cost efficiency in banking : Econometric and linear programming evidence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1-2), pages 229-245.
    14. Akella, Srinivas R. & Greenbaum, Stuart I., 1988. "Savings and loan ownership structure and expense-preference," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 419-437, September.
    15. Bauer, Paul W. & Berger, Allen N. & Ferrier, Gary D. & Humphrey, David B., 1998. "Consistency Conditions for Regulatory Analysis of Financial Institutions: A Comparison of Frontier Efficiency Methods," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 85-114, March.
    16. Richard S. Barr & Kory A. Killgo & Thomas F. Siems & Sheri Zimmel, 1999. "Evaluating the productive efficiency and performance of U.S. commercial banks," Financial Industry Studies Working Paper 99-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
    17. Lamberte, Mario B. & Manlagnit, Ma. Chelo V., 2003. "Integrating Gender Perspectives in Evaluating the Efficiency of COFI: The Case of Credit Cooperatives in the Philippines," Discussion Papers DP 2003-06, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.
    18. Claessens, Stijn & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Huizinga, Harry, 1998. "How does foreign entry affect the domestic banking market?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1918, The World Bank.
    19. Schmidt, Peter & Knox Lovell, C. A., 1979. "Estimating technical and allocative inefficiency relative to stochastic production and cost frontiers," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 343-366, February.
    20. Allen N. Berger, 2000. "The integration of the financial services industry: where are the efficiencies?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2000-36, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    21. Carol Ann Northcott, 2004. "Competition in Banking: A Review of the Literature," Staff Working Papers 04-24, Bank of Canada.
    22. Aigner, Dennis & Lovell, C. A. Knox & Schmidt, Peter, 1977. "Formulation and estimation of stochastic frontier production function models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 21-37, July.
    23. Altunbas, Yener & Evans, Lynne & Molyneux, Philip, 2001. "Bank Ownership and Efficiency," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(4), pages 926-954, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Santos José O. Dacanay III, 2010. "The evolution of cost and profit efficiency of Philippine commercial banks," Philippine Review of Economics, University of the Philippines School of Economics and Philippine Economic Society, vol. 47(1), pages 109-146, June.
    2. Kashiwabara, Chie, 2013. "The Central Bank and bank credits in the Philippines : a survey on effectiveness of monetary policy and its measures," IDE Discussion Papers 413, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    3. Kashiwabara, Chie, 2015. "Changes in source of profits and business strategies? : some evidence from the Philippines' universal banks in the 2000s," IDE Discussion Papers 520, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    4. Anthonia T. Odeleye, 2014. "Pre-Consolidation and Post-Consolidation of Nigerian Banking Sector: A Dynamic Comparison," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 4(1), pages 27-34.
    5. Aldaba, Rafaelita M., 2005. "The Impact of Market Reforms on Competition, Structure and Performance of the Philippine Economy," Discussion Papers DP 2005-24, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.
    6. Manlagñit, Maria Chelo V., 2011. "The economic effects of foreign bank presence: Evidence from the Philippines," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 1180-1194, October.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:phd:dpaper:dp_2004-46. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Aniceto Orbeta). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/pidgvph.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.