Development and� Religious Polarization: The Emergence of Reform and Ultra-Orthodox Judaism
Jewish emancipation in nineteenth century Europe produced drastically different responses.� In Germany, a liberal variant known as Reform developed, while ultra-Orthodox Judaism emerged in eastern Europe.� We develop a model of religious organization which explains this polarization.� In developed regions, religious authorities embrace the prospect of cultural integration by relaxing probhibitions and benfitting from greater financial contributions.� In poorer regions, religious authorities adopt a strategy of cultural resistance, enforcing prohibitions to elicit greater contributions of effort.� In regions of intermediate development, religious schisms and cycles occur.� This analytic narrative sheds light on how economic development can lead to cultural change.
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