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Population and the Economy in Germany, 1800-1990

Author

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  • Timothy W. Guinnane

    () (Economic Growth Center, Yale University)

Abstract

Germany's turbulent history in the past two centuries has left its mark on her population. The industrialization of the nineteenth century promoted rapid population growth, and the spatial concentration of that industrialization provoked enormous internal migration. Germany's relatively late economic development left the country impoverished relative to North America and some other societies for most of the nineteenth century, promoting extensive emigration. Like most of western Europe, Germany experienced a sharp reduction in fertility and mortality rates during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, but these transitions were more abrupt in Germany than elsewhere. Twentieth-century turmoil marked Germany's population through death and other demographic consequences of war and through the huge flows of refugees that followed both World Wars. This paper traces the main developments in German population for the past two centuries, stressing connections to economic issues.

Suggested Citation

  • Timothy W. Guinnane, 1998. "Population and the Economy in Germany, 1800-1990," Working Papers 793, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
  • Handle: RePEc:egc:wpaper:793
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    Cited by:

    1. Mark Koyama & Jean-Paul Carvalho, "undated". "Development and Religious Polarization: The Emergence of Reform and Ultra-Orthodox Judaism," Discussion Papers 11/11, Department of Economics, University of York.
    2. Timothy Guinnane & Sheilagh Ogilvie, 2008. "Institutions and Demographic Responses to Shocks: Württemberg, 1634-1870," Working Papers 962, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
    3. Ogilvie, S. & Küpker, M. & Maegraith, J., 2009. "Community Characteristics and Demographic Development: Three Württemberg Communities, 1558 - 1914," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0910, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Population and Economic Development; Germany;

    JEL classification:

    • N33 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy - - - Europe: Pre-1913
    • N34 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy - - - Europe: 1913-
    • J11 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts

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