Trade and Growth: Is Sub-Saharan Africa Different
This paper argues that SSA has derived a minimal growth benefit from trade because of what it exports and that the detrimental effect of primary commodity export dependence on SSA growth can be captured by two structural variables, natural barriers to trade (NBT, trade costs) and natural resource endowments (NRE, primary commodity dependence). The analysis is based on a large panel of developing countries for 1970 to 2008 and explicitly tests for threshold effects in the structural variables. We find that high trade costs and natural resource endowments have a negative effect on growth and that the combination of these two factors accounts for the SSA dummy: SSA countries tend to have high values of NRE and NBT and this helps to explain why SSA countries experienced lower growth than other developing countries (the significant negative dummy for SSA). The trade variables also performed as expected. Exports and trade openness generally contribute to growth, but their effect on growth is affected by the structural variables; specifically high values as observed in SSA dampen the positive impact of trade on growth. The poor growth of SSA relative to other regions is largely accounted for by the combination of natural resource endowments and high transport costs so that the dependence on primary commodity exports has not supported growth.
|Date of creation:|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: School of Economics University of Nottingham University Park Nottingham NG7 2RD|
Phone: (44) 0115 951 5620
Fax: (0115) 951 4159
Web page: http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/economics/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Xavier Sala-I-Martin, 1997.
"Transfers, Social Safety Nets, and Economic Growth,"
IMF Staff Papers,
Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 44(1), pages 81-102, March.
- Grier, Kevin B. & Tullock, Gordon, 1989. "An empirical analysis of cross-national economic growth, 1951-1980," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 259-276, September.
- Jean–paul Azam & Augustin Fosu & Njuguna Ndung’u, 2002. "Explaining Slow Growth in Africa," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 14(2), pages 177-220.
- N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1990.
"A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth,"
NBER Working Papers
3541, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Robert E. Baldwin, 2004.
"Openness and Growth: What's the Empirical Relationship?,"
in: Challenges to Globalization: Analyzing the Economics, pages 499-526
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Robert E. Baldwin, 2003. "Openness and Growth: What's the Empirical Relationship?," NBER Working Papers 9578, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Caselli, Francesco & Esquivel, Gerardo & Lefort, Fernando, 1996.
"Reopening the Convergence Debate: A New Look at Cross-Country Growth Empirics,"
Journal of Economic Growth,
Springer, vol. 1(3), pages 363-89, September.
- Robert J. Barro, 2013.
"Inflation and Economic Growth,"
Annals of Economics and Finance,
Society for AEF, vol. 14(1), pages 121-144, May.
- Abigail Barr, 1995.
"The missing factor: entrepreneurial networks, enterprises and economic growth in Ghana,"
CSAE Working Paper Series
1995-11, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Abigail Barr, 1995. "The missing factor: entrepreneurial networks, enterprises and economic growth in Ghana," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/1995-11, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Wood, Adrian & Mayer, Jorg, 2001. "Africa's Export Structure in a Comparative Perspective," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(3), pages 369-94, May.
- Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998.
"Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
- R Blundell & Steven Bond, . "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data model," Economics Papers W14&104., Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Richard Blundell & Steve Bond, 1995. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," IFS Working Papers W95/17, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Blundell, R. & Bond, S., 1995. "Initial Conditions and Moment Restrictions in Dynamic Panel Data Models," Economics Papers 104, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995.
"Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
- M Arellano & O Bover, 1990. "Another Look at the Instrumental Variable Estimation of Error-Components Models," CEP Discussion Papers dp0007, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Martin, Philippe & Rogers, Carol Ann, 1997.
"Stabilization Policy, Learning-by-Doing, and Economic Growth,"
Oxford Economic Papers,
Oxford University Press, vol. 49(2), pages 152-66, April.
- Martin, Philippe & Rogers, Carol Ann, 1995. "Stabilization Policy, Learning by Doing, and Economic Growth," CEPR Discussion Papers 1130, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Jagdish N. Bhagwati, 1978. "Anatomy and Consequences of Exchange Control Regimes," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number bhag78-1, March.
- Caner, Mehmet & Hansen, Bruce E., 2004. "Instrumental Variable Estimation Of A Threshold Model," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(05), pages 813-843, October.
- Jagdish N. Bhagwati, 1978. "Appendix to "Anatomy and Consequences of Exchange Control Regimes"," NBER Chapters, in: Anatomy and Consequences of Exchange Control Regimes, pages 219-221 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Greenaway, David & Morgan, Wyn & Wright, Peter, 2002. "Trade liberalisation and growth in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 229-244, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:not:notcre:10/04. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Hilary Hughes)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.