IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/22854.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

From “Made in China” to “Innovated in China”: Necessity, Prospect, and Challenges

Author

Listed:
  • Shang-Jin Wei
  • Zhuan Xie
  • Xiaobo Zhang

Abstract

After more than three decades of high growth that was based on an exploration of its low-wage advantage and a relatively favorable demographic pattern in combination with market-oriented reforms and openness to the world economy, China is at a crossroad with a much higher wage and a shrinking work force. Future growth by necessity would have to depend more on its ability to generate productivity increase, and domestic innovation will be an important part of it. In this paper, we assess the likelihood that China can make the necessary transition. Using data on expenditure on research and development, and patent applications, receipts, and citations, we show that the Chinese economy has become increasingly innovative. In terms of drivers of innovation growth, we find that embracing expanded market opportunities in the world economy and responding to rising labor costs are two leading contributing factors. On the other hand, we find evidence of resource misallocation in the innovation area: while state-owned firms receive more subsidies, private firms exhibit more innovation results. Innovation can presumably progress even faster if resource misallocation can be tackled.

Suggested Citation

  • Shang-Jin Wei & Zhuan Xie & Xiaobo Zhang, 2016. "From “Made in China” to “Innovated in China”: Necessity, Prospect, and Challenges," NBER Working Papers 22854, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:22854
    Note: DEV
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w22854.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Bhorat, Haroon & Hirsch, Alan & Kanbur, Ravi & Ncube, Mthuli (ed.), 2014. "The Oxford Companion to the Economics of South Africa," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199689248.
    2. Loren Brandt & Trevor Tombe & Xiadong Zhu, 2013. "Factor Market Distortions Across Time, Space, and Sectors in China," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 16(1), pages 39-58, January.
    3. Zhang, Xiaobo & Yang, Jin & Wang, Shenglin, 2011. "China has reached the Lewis turning point," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 542-554.
    4. Xiaodong Zhu, 2012. "Understanding China's Growth: Past, Present, and Future," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 26(4), pages 103-124, Fall.
    5. Knight, John & Deng, Quheng & Li, Shi, 2011. "The puzzle of migrant labour shortage and rural labour surplus in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 585-600.
    6. David H. Autor & Frank Levy & Richard J. Murnane, 2003. "The skill content of recent technological change: an empirical exploration," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Nov.
    7. Xu, Chenggang & Zhang, Xiaobo, 2009. "The evolution of Chinese entrepreneurial firms: Township-village enterprises revisited," IFPRI discussion papers 854, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    8. Yingyi Qian & Barry R. Weingast, 1997. "Federalism as a Commitment to Reserving Market Incentives," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(4), pages 83-92, Fall.
    9. Han , Xuehui & Wei, Shang-Jin, 2015. "Re-examining the Middle-Income Trap Hypothesis: What to Reject and What to Revive?," ADB Economics Working Paper Series 436, Asian Development Bank.
    10. Chang-Tai Hsieh & Peter J. Klenow, 2009. "Misallocation and Manufacturing TFP in China and India," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 124(4), pages 1403-1448.
    11. Shang-Jin Wei & Xiaobo Zhang, 2011. "The Competitive Saving Motive: Evidence from Rising Sex Ratios and Savings Rates in China," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 119(3), pages 511-564.
    12. Chenggang Xu, 2011. "The Fundamental Institutions of China's Reforms and Development," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 49(4), pages 1076-1151, December.
    13. Daron Acemoglu & Joshua Linn, 2004. "Market Size in Innovation: Theory and Evidence from the Pharmaceutical Industry," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(3), pages 1049-1090.
    14. Golley, Jane & Meng, Xin, 2011. "Has China run out of surplus labour?," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 555-572.
    15. Fang Cai & Meiyan Wang, 2008. "A Counterfactual Analysis on Unlimited Surplus Labor in Rural China," China & World Economy, Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 16(1), pages 51-65, January.
    16. Keting Shen & Jing Wang & John Whalley, 2015. "Measuring Changes in the Bilateral Technology Gaps between China, India and the U.S. 1979 - 2008," NBER Working Papers 21657, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Shenggen Fan & Xiaobo Zhang & Sherman Robinson, 2003. "Structural Change and Economic Growth in China," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(3), pages 360-377, August.
    18. Robert C. Feenstra & Shang-Jin Wei, 2010. "China's Growing Role in World Trade," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number feen07-1.
    19. Chang, Simon & Zhang, Xiaobo, 2015. "Mating competition and entrepreneurship," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 292-309.
    20. Lily Fang & Josh Lerner & Chaopeng Wu, 2016. "Intellectual Property Rights Protection, Ownership, and Innovation: Evidence from China," NBER Working Papers 22685, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    21. Feenstra, Robert C. & Wei, Shang-Jin (ed.), 2010. "China's Growing Role in World Trade," National Bureau of Economic Research Books, University of Chicago Press, number 9780226239712, September.
    22. Lin, Justin Yifu, 1992. "Rural Reforms and Agricultural Growth in China," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(1), pages 34-51, March.
    23. Boeing, Philipp, 2016. "The allocation and effectiveness of China’s R&D subsidies - Evidence from listed firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(9), pages 1774-1789.
    24. Aryeetey, Ernest & Devarajan, Shantayanan & Kanbur, Ravi & Kasekende, Louis (ed.), 2014. "The Oxford Companion to the Economics of Africa," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198705437.
    25. repec:tpr:asiaec:v:15:y:2016:i:3:p:32-55 is not listed on IDEAS
    26. CAI, Fang & DU, Yang, 2011. "Wage increases, wage convergence, and the Lewis turning point in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 601-610.
    27. Fan, Shenggen & Kanbur, Ravi & Wei, Shang-Jin & Zhang, Xiaobo (ed.), 2014. "The Oxford Companion to the Economics of China," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199678204.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Zhou, Haiwen, 2017. "Will China Avoid the Middle-Income Trap?," MPRA Paper 82688, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Alex Coad & Antonio Vezzani, 2017. "Manufacturing the future: is the manufacturing sector a driver of R&D, exports and productivity growth?," JRC Working Papers on Corporate R&D and Innovation 2017-06, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).
    3. repec:eee:respol:v:46:y:2017:i:9:p:1533-1551 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Allen, Franklin & Qian, Jun & Qian, Meijun, 2018. "A Review of China's Institutions," CEPR Discussion Papers 13269, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Jong-Wha Lee, 2017. "China's economic growth and convergence," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(11), pages 2455-2474, November.
    6. Gandenberger, Carsten, 2018. "China's trajectory from production to innovation: Insights from the photovoltaics sector," Working Papers "Sustainability and Innovation" S03/2018, Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI).
    7. Rong, Zhao & Wu, Xiaokai & Boeing, Philipp, 2017. "The effect of institutional ownership on firm innovation: Evidence from Chinese listed firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(9), pages 1533-1551.
    8. Prema-chandra Athukorala, 2017. "China's evolving role in global production networks: implications for Trump's trade war," Departmental Working Papers 2017-08, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
    9. repec:eee:respol:v:48:y:2019:i:1:p:206-222 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:11:p:4051-:d:180687 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. repec:bla:chinae:v:26:y:2018:i:2:p:23-49 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Jonathan Eberle & Philipp Boeing, 2019. "Effects of R&D subsidies on regional economic dynamics: Evidence from Chinese provinces," Working Papers on Innovation and Space 2019-03, Philipps University Marburg, Department of Geography.
    13. repec:spr:manint:v:58:y:2018:i:6:d:10.1007_s11575-018-0361-3 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development
    • O3 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights
    • O4 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity
    • O53 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:22854. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.