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Dollar Funding and the Lending Behavior of Global Banks

  • Victoria Ivashina
  • David S. Scharfstein
  • Jeremy C. Stein

A large share of dollar-denominated lending is done by non-U.S. banks, particularly European banks. We present a model in which such banks cut dollar lending more than euro lending in response to a shock to their credit quality. Because these banks rely on wholesale dollar funding, while raising more of their euro funding through insured retail deposits, the shock leads to a greater withdrawal of dollar funding. Banks can borrow in euros and swap into dollars to make up for the dollar shortfall, but this may lead to violations of covered interest parity (CIP) when there is limited capital to take the other side of the swap trade. In this case, synthetic dollar borrowing becomes expensive, which causes cuts in dollar lending. We test the model in the context of the Eurozone sovereign crisis, which escalated in the second half of 2011 and resulted in U.S. money-market funds sharply reducing the funding provided to European banks. Coincident with the contraction in dollar funding, there were significant violations of euro-dollar CIP. Moreover, dollar lending by Eurozone banks fell relative to their euro lending in both the U.S. and Europe; this was not the case for U.S. global banks. Finally, European banks that were more reliant on money funds experienced bigger declines in dollar lending.

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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 18528.

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Date of creation: Nov 2012
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Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:18528
Note: CF
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  1. Tommaso Mancini Griffoli & Angelo Ranaldo, 2010. "Limits to arbitrage during the crisis: funding liquidity constraints and covered interest parity," Working Papers 2010-14, Swiss National Bank.
  2. Niall Coffey & Warren B. Hrung & Asani Sarkar, 2009. "Capital constraints, counterparty risk, and deviations from covered interest rate parity," Staff Reports 393, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
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  9. Richard M. Levich, 2012. "FX Counterparty Risk and Trading Activity in Currency Forward and Futures Markets," NBER Working Papers 18256, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Levich, Richard M., 2012. "FX counterparty risk and trading activity in currency forward and futures markets," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 102-110.
  11. Ingo Fender & Patrick McGuire, 2010. "Bank structure, funding risk and the transmission of shocks across countries: concepts and measurement," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, September.
  12. Eric S. Rosengren & Joe Peek, 2000. "Collateral Damage: Effects of the Japanese Bank Crisis on Real Activity in the United States," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(1), pages 30-45, March.
  13. Viral V Acharya & Philipp Schnabl, 2010. "Do Global Banks Spread Global Imbalances? Asset-Backed Commercial Paper during the Financial Crisis of 2007–09," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 58(1), pages 37-73, August.
  14. Taylor, Mark P, 1987. "Covered Interest Parity: A High-Frequency, High-Quality Data Study," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 54(216), pages 429-38, November.
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