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Dollar Funding and the Lending Behavior of Global Banks

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  • Victoria Ivashina
  • David S. Scharfstein
  • Jeremy C. Stein

Abstract

A large share of dollar-denominated lending is done by non-U.S. banks, particularly European banks. We present a model in which such banks cut dollar lending more than euro lending in response to a shock to their credit quality. Because these banks rely on wholesale dollar funding, while raising more of their euro funding through insured retail deposits, the shock leads to a greater withdrawal of dollar funding. Banks can borrow in euros and swap into dollars to make up for the dollar shortfall, but this may lead to violations of covered interest parity (CIP) when there is limited capital to take the other side of the swap trade. In this case, synthetic dollar borrowing becomes expensive, which causes cuts in dollar lending. We test the model in the context of the Eurozone sovereign crisis, which escalated in the second half of 2011 and resulted in U.S. money-market funds sharply reducing the funding provided to European banks. Coincident with the contraction in dollar funding, there were significant violations of euro-dollar CIP. Moreover, dollar lending by Eurozone banks fell relative to their euro lending in both the U.S. and Europe; this was not the case for U.S. global banks. Finally, European banks that were more reliant on money funds experienced bigger declines in dollar lending.

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  • Victoria Ivashina & David S. Scharfstein & Jeremy C. Stein, 2012. "Dollar Funding and the Lending Behavior of Global Banks," NBER Working Papers 18528, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:18528 Note: CF
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    Cited by:

    1. MIYAKAWA Daisuke & HOSONO Kaoru & UCHINO Taisuke & ONO Arito & UCHIDA Hirofumi & UESUGI Iichiro, 2014. "Financial Shocks and Firm Exports: A natural experiment approach with a massive earthquake," Discussion papers 14010, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    2. Bonaccorsi di Patti, Emilia & Sette, Enrico, 2016. "Did the securitization market freeze affect bank lending during the financial crisis? Evidence from a credit register," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 54-76.
    3. Acharya, Viral & Pierret, Diane & Steffen, Sascha, 2016. "Lender of last resort versus buyer of last resort: The impact of the European Central Bank actions on the bank-sovereign nexus," ZEW Discussion Papers 16-019, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    4. Hoggarth, Glenn & Hooley, John & Korniyenko, Yevgeniya, 2013. "Financial Stability Paper No 22: Which way do foreign branches sway? Evidence from the recent UK domestic credit cycle," Bank of England Financial Stability Papers 22, Bank of England.
    5. Philip R. Lane & Peter McQuade, 2014. "Domestic Credit Growth and International Capital Flows," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 116(1), pages 218-252, January.
    6. Frey, Rainer, 2015. "Multinational banks' deleveraging in the crisis driven by pre-crisis characteristics and behavior," Discussion Papers 18/2015, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    7. Robert N. McCauley & Patrick McGuire & Vladyslav Sushko, 2015. "Global dollar credit: links to US monetary policy and leverage," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 30(82), pages 187-229.
    8. Acharya, Viral V. & Afonso, Gara & Kovner, Anna, 2017. "How do global banks scramble for liquidity? Evidence from the asset-backed commercial paper freeze of 2007," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 1-34.
    9. Acharya, Viral V. & Steffen, Sascha, 2015. "The “greatest” carry trade ever? Understanding eurozone bank risks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 115(2), pages 215-236.
    10. Bénassy-Quéré, Agnès & Forouheshfar, Yeganeh, 2015. "The impact of yuan internationalization on the stability of the international monetary system," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 115-135.
    11. Philippe BACCHETTA & Ouarda MERROUCHE, 2015. "Countercyclical Foreign Currency Borrowing: Eurozone Firms in 2007-2009," Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper Series 15-63, Swiss Finance Institute.
    12. Berlin, Mitchell, 2015. "New rules for foreign banks: what's at stake?," Business Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, issue Q1, pages 1-10.
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    14. Broz, Lawrence, 2015. "The Federal Reserve as global lender of last resort, 2007-2010," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 60951, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    15. Maurice Obstfeld, 2015. "Trilemmas and Tradeoffs: Living with Financial Globalization," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series,in: Claudio Raddatz & Diego Saravia & Jaume Ventura (ed.), Global Liquidity, Spillovers to Emerging Markets and Policy Responses, edition 1, volume 20, chapter 2, pages 013-078 Central Bank of Chile.
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    17. Ferrando, Annalisa & Popov, Alexander & Udell, Gregory F., 2015. "Sovereign stress, unconventional monetary policy, and SME access to finance," Working Paper Series 1820, European Central Bank.
    18. Pelizzon, Loriana & Subrahmanyam, Marti G. & Tomio, Davide & Uno, Jun, 2016. "Sovereign credit risk, liquidity, and European Central Bank intervention: Deus ex machina?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 122(1), pages 86-115.
    19. Acharya, Viral V & Eisert, Tim & Eufinger, Christian & Hirsch, Christian, 2014. "Real Effects of the Sovereign Debt Crisis in Europe: Evidence from Syndicated Loans," CEPR Discussion Papers 10108, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    20. Milcheva, Stanimira & Zhu, Bing, 2016. "Bank integration and co-movements across housing markets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 72(S), pages 148-171.
    21. Gallagher, Emily & Schmidt, Lawrence & Timmermann, Allan G & Wermers, Russ, 2017. "Transparency, Investor Information Acquisition, and Money Market Fund Risk Rebalancing during the 2011-12 Eurozone Crisis," CEPR Discussion Papers 11895, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    22. Philip Lane, 2013. "International Capital Flows and Domestic Financial Conditions: Lessons for Emerging Asia," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp438, IIIS.
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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F36 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration
    • F44 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - International Business Cycles
    • F6 - International Economics - - Economic Impacts of Globalization
    • G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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