Enrolling the Self-Employed in Mandatory Health Insurance in Colombia: are we missing other factors?
We assess the impact that Colombia’s 1993 health sector reform had on the enrollment of self-employed workers in mandatory social health insurance scheme, with a especial focus on the independent contractors. This group grew dramatically in the form of workers cooperatives between 1993 and 2003, becoming a source of self-employed evasion and a way to disguised employment. We use two national-level Living Standards Measurement Surveys conducted in Colombia in 1997 and 2003, and follow a methodology that corrects for sample selection, decomposing health insurance coverage variation into changes attributed to the reform and to the characteristics of independent contractors. We find that: (i) Between 1997 and 2003, enrollment increased in 28 percentage points reaching an insurance rate of 62%, still below the reform goal of 80%, (ii) enrollment of independent contractors in 1997 was only 35% (compared to 50%) after adjusting by the selection bias due to disguised employment, (ii) the new legislation and stringent monitoring implemented in 2003 to cope with evasion seem to be effective since the sample selection due to disguised employment was not statistically significant in 2003. Addressing the interaction of the labor market with the health reform, as well as, accounting for the heterogeneity within the self-employed group are the main contributions of this paper to the literature on health insurance reforms in developing countries.
|Date of creation:||2012|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||Published in|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Campus de Arrosadía - 31006 Pamplona (Spain)|
Phone: 34 948 169340
Fax: 34 948 169 721
Web page: http://www.econ.unavarra.es
|Order Information:|| Postal: Papers are not sent in a centralized mode. You can download them with ftp, or contact the authors.|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Maloney, William F. & Nunez, Jairo & Cunningham, Wendy & Fiess, Norbert & Montenegro, Claudio & Murrugarra, Edmundo & Santamaria,Mauricio & Sepulveda, Claudia, 2001.
"Measuring the impact of minimum wages : evidence from Latin America,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2597, The World Bank.
- William Maloney & Jairo Mendez, 2004. "Measuring the Impact of Minimum Wages. Evidence from Latin America," NBER Chapters, in: Law and Employment: Lessons from Latin America and the Caribbean, pages 109-130 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- William F. Maloney & Jairo Nunez Mendez, 2003. "Measuring the Impact of Minimum Wages: Evidence from Latin America," NBER Working Papers 9800, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jonathan Gruber, 2008. "Covering the Uninsured in the United States," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 46(3), pages 571-606, September.
- Marquis, M. Susan, 1992. "Adverse selection with a multiple choice among health insurance plans: A simulation analysis," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 129-151, August.
- Fernando Ruiz & Liliana Amaya & Stella Venegas, 2007. "Progressive segmented health insurance: Colombian health reform and access to health services," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(1), pages 3-18.
- Maria Tannuri-Pianto & Donald Pianto, 2004.
"Informal employment in Bolivia: A lost proposition?,"
Econometric Society 2004 Latin American Meetings
149, Econometric Society.
- Maria Tannuri-Pianto & Donald M. Pianto & Omar Arias, 2004. "Informal Employment in Bolivia: A Lost Proposition?," Working papers - Textos para Discussao do Departamento de Economia da Universidade de Brasilia 317, Departamento de Economia da Universidade de Brasilia.
- Ramón Abel Castaño & Andrés Zambrano, 2005.
"Biased selection within the social health insurance market in Colombia,"
BORRADORES DE INVESTIGACIÓN
002063, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO.
- Castano, Ramon & Zambrano, Andres, 2006. "Biased selection within the social health insurance market in Colombia," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 79(2-3), pages 313-324, December.
- Gindling, T. H. & Terrell, Katherine, 2004.
"Legal Minimum Wages and the Wages of Formal and Informal Sector Workers in Costa Rica,"
IZA Discussion Papers
1018, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- T.H. Gindling & Katherine Terrell, 2004. "Legal Minimum Wages and the Wages of Formal and Informal Sector Workers in Costa Rica," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2004-647, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Antonio Trujillo & Jorge Portillo & John Vernon, 2005. "The Impact of Subsidized Health Insurance for the Poor: Evaluating the Colombian Experience Using Propensity Score Matching," International Journal of Health Economics and Management, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 211-239, September.
- Philip M. Clarke & Chris Ryan, 2006. "Self-reported health: reliability and consequences for health inequality measurement," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(6), pages 645-652.
- Paul Gertler & Jonathan Gruber, 2002.
"Insuring Consumption Against Illness,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 92(1), pages 51-70, March.
- Paul Gertler & Jonathan Gruber, 1997. "Insuring Consumption Against Illness," NBER Working Papers 6035, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Paul Gertler & Jonathan Gruber, 1998. "Insuring Consumption Against Illness," JCPR Working Papers 41, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
- Jonathan Gruber & James Poterba, 1994. "Tax Incentives and the Decision to Purchase Health Insurance: Evidence from the Self-Employed," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 109(3), pages 701-733.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nav:ecupna:1213. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Javier Puértolas)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.