Changes in the demand for private medical insurance following a shift in tax incentives
The 1998 Spanish reform of the Personal Income Tax eliminated the 15% deduction for private medical expenditures including payments on private health insurance (PHI) policies. To avoid an undesired increase in the demand for publicly funded health care, tax incentives to buy PHI were not completely removed but basically shifted from individual to group employer-paid policies. In a unique fiscal experiment, at the same time that the tax relief for individually purchased policies was abolished, the government provided for tax allowances on policies taken out through employment. Using a bivariate probit model on data from National Health Surveys, we estimate the impact of said reform on the demand for PHI and the changes occurred within it. Our findings indicate that the total probability of buying PHI was not significantly affected by the reform. Indeed, the fall in the demand for individual policies (by 10% between 1997 and 2001) was offset by an increase in the demand for group employer-paid ones. We also briefly discuss the welfare effects on the state budget, the industry and society at large. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Volume (Year): 17 (2008)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/jhome/5749|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Hoel, Michael & Saether, Erik Magnus, 2003.
"Public health care with waiting time: the role of supplementary private health care,"
Journal of Health Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 599-616, July.
- Michael Hoel & Erik Magnus Sæther, 2001. "Public Health Care with Waiting Time: The Role of Supplementary Private Health Care," CESifo Working Paper Series 562, CESifo Group Munich.
- Gertler, Paul & Sturm, Roland, 1997. "Private health insurance and public expenditures in Jamaica," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 237-257, March.
- Propper, Carol, 1993. "Constrained choice sets in the U.K. demand for private medical insurance," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 287-307, July.
- Ángel Marcos Vera-Hernández, 1999. "Duplicate coverage and demand for health care. The case of Catalonia," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 8(7), pages 579-598.
- Gruber, Jonathan & Lettau, Michael, 2004. "How elastic is the firm's demand for health insurance?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(7-8), pages 1273-1293, July.
- Van de Ven, Wynand P. M. M. & Van Praag, Bernard M. S., 1981. "The demand for deductibles in private health insurance : A probit model with sample selection," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 229-252, November.
- Johannesson, Magnus & Johansson, Per-Olov & Söderqvist, Tore, 1997.
"Time Spent on Waiting Lists for Medical Care: An Insurance Approach,"
SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance
192, Stockholm School of Economics.
- Johannesson, Magnus & Johansson, Per-Olov & Soderqvist, Tore, 1998. "Time spent on waiting lists for medical care: an insurance approach," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 627-644, October.
- Hansen, Bodil O. & Keiding, Hans, 2002. "Alternative health insurance schemes: a welfare comparison," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 739-756, September.
- Danzon, Patricia M., 2002. "Welfare effects of supplementary insurance: a comment," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 923-926, September.
- Beenstock, Michael & Rahav, Giora, 2002. "Testing Gateway Theory: do cigarette prices affect illicit drug use?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 679-698, July.
- Marisol Rodríguez & Alexandrina Stoyanova, 2004. "The effect of private insurance access on the choice of GP|specialist and public|private provider in Spain," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(7), pages 689-703.
- Propper, Carol, 2000. "The demand for private health care in the UK," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 855-876, November.
- Joan Costa & Jaume Garcia, 2003. "Demand for private health insurance: how important is the quality gap?," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(7), pages 587-599.
- Propper, Carol & Rees, Hedley & Green, Katherine, 2001.
"The Demand for Private Medical Insurance in the UK: A Cohort Analysis,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 111(471), pages 180-200, May.
- Propper, Carol & Rees, Hedley, 2000. "The Demand for Private Medical Insurance in the UK: A Cohort Analysis," CEPR Discussion Papers 2513, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Epple, Dennis & Romano, Richard E, 1996. "Public Provision of Private Goods," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(1), pages 57-84, February.
- Besley, Timothy & Hall, John & Preston, Ian, 1999.
"The demand for private health insurance: do waiting lists matter?,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 155-181, May.
- Tim Besley & John Hall & Ian Preston, 1996. "The demand for private health insurance: do waiting lists matter?," IFS Working Papers W96/07, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Gruber, J. & Poterba, J., 1994.
"Tax Incentives and the Decision to Purchase Health Insurance: Evidence from the Self-Employed,"
94-10, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Jonathan Gruber & James M. Poterba, 1993. "Tax Incentives and the Decision to Purchase Health Insurance: Evidence from the Self-Employed," NBER Working Papers 4435, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Miguel Gouveia, 1996. "The public sector and health care," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 3(3), pages 329-349, July.
- Besley, T. & Coate, S., 1989.
"Public Provision Of Private Goods And The Redistribution Of Income,"
36, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Discussion Paper.
- Besley, Timothy & Coate, Stephen, 1991. "Public Provision of Private Goods and the Redistribution of Income," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(4), pages 979-984, September.
- Jonathan Gruber & Michael Lettau, 2000. "How Elastic is the Firm's Demand for Health Insurance?," NBER Working Papers 8021, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Colm Harmon & Brian Nolan, 2001. "Health insurance and health services utilization in Ireland," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(2), pages 135-145.
- Carol Propper, 1987. "An econometric estimation of the demand for private health insurance," Working Papers 024chedp, Centre for Health Economics, University of York.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wly:hlthec:v:17:y:2008:i:2:p:185-202. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing)or (Christopher F. Baum)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.