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Inter-CMA Migration of the Immigrants in Canada: 1991-1996 and 1996-2001


  • Lei Xu


Based on the tabulations of the IMDB, I characterized, explained and compared the 1991-1996 and 1996-2001 inter-CMA migration of the immigrants in Canada. The spatial and temporal patterns were consistent with the neoclassical economic theory and the ethnic enclave theory. In making their decisions on departure and destination choices, the immigrants (both the 1991 landing cohort and 1996 cohort) were responsive to income and employment incentives, as well as the retaining and attracting powers of ethnic communities. This research also discovered an interesting temporal pattern -- while the inter-CMA migration of immigrants accentuated the over representation of the immigrants in Toronto and Vancouver in the 91-96 period, the rise of the “secondary” CMAs led to a spatial dispersal of the immigrants in the 96-01 period. This “new” finding supplements the existing literature on internal migration of Canadian immigrants, which discovered little evidence of an increased dispersion of immigrants over time.

Suggested Citation

  • Lei Xu, 2007. "Inter-CMA Migration of the Immigrants in Canada: 1991-1996 and 1996-2001," Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population Research Papers 195, McMaster University.
  • Handle: RePEc:mcm:sedapp:195

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. P Kanaroglou & K-L Liaw & Y Y Papageorgiou, 1986. "An Analysis of Migratory Systems: 2. Operational Framework," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 18(8), pages 1039-1060, August.
    2. Kao-Lee Liaw & Lei Xu & Mingzhu Qi, 2002. "Quebec's Lackluster Performance in Interprovincial Migration and Immigration: How, Why, and What Can Be Done," Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population Research Papers 87, McMaster University.
    3. E G Moore & M W Rosenberg, 1995. "Modelling migration flows of immigrant groups in Canada," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 27(5), pages 699-714, May.
    4. William Kandel & Emilio A. Parrado, 2005. "Restructuring of the US Meat Processing Industry and New Hispanic Migrant Destinations," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 31(3), pages 447-471.
    5. Bartel, Ann P, 1989. "Where Do the New U.S. Immigrants Live?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 7(4), pages 371-391, October.
    6. Kao-Lee Liaw & Lei Xu & Mingzhu Qi, 2002. "Quebec's Lackluster Performance in Interprovincial Migration and Immigration: How, Why, and What Can Be Done?," Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population Research Reports 378, McMaster University.
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    More about this item


    internal migration; immigrants; Canada; Census Metropolitan Area (CMA);

    JEL classification:

    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population
    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • J11 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts

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