Inequality and Poverty in China during Reform
This paper provides an overview of the evolution of income inequality and poverty in China from 1987 to 2002, documenting significant increases of inequality within China's urban and rural populations. In rural areas, increased inequality is primarily related to the disequalizing role of non-agricultural self-employment income and the slow growth in agricultural income from the mid-1990s onward. Poverty persists, and tied in part to slow growth in agricultural commodity prices. In urban areas, the declining role of subsidies and entitlements, the increase in wage inequality, and the layoffs during restructuring have fueled the growth in inequality within urban areas. Poverty levels, however, are very low. China should give more emphasis on education, training, and other human development efforts in its poverty reduction strategy since return to education increased rapidly and became a major source of inequality. A nationwide "social safety net" and an effective redistributive taxation system should be adopted and implemented to ensure that the poor can benefit from the fruits of rapid economic growth.
|Date of creation:||2007|
|Date of revision:|
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- Dwayne Benjamin & Loren Brandt & John Giles, 2003.
"The Evolution of Income Inequality in Rural China,"
benjamin-04-01, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
- Dwayne Benjamin & Loren Brandt & Paul Glewwe & Li Guo, 2000.
"Markets, Human Capital, and Inequality: Evidence from Rural China,"
William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series
298, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Dwayne Benjamin & Loren Brandt & Paul Glewwe & Li Guo, 2000. "Markets, Human Capital, and Inequality: Evidence from Rural China," Working Papers benjamin-00-01, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
- Ravallion, Martin & Shaohua Chen, 2004.
"China's (uneven) progress against poverty,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
3408, The World Bank.
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- Anthony F. Shorrocks, 1983. "The Impact of Income Components on the Distribution of Family Incomes," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 98(2), pages 311-326.
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- Keith Griffin & Azizur Rahman Khan & Carl Riskin, 1999. "Income Distribution in Urban China during the Period of Economic Reform and Globalization," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 296-300, May.
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