IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ltv/dpaper/201101.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Convergence Processes in Europe and Latvia

Author

Listed:
  • Aleksejs Melihovs

    (Bank of Latvia)

  • Igors Kasjanovs

    (Bank of Latvia)

Abstract

This paper, attempting to tackle separately real and structural convergence, is an in-depth study of the convergence processes in Latvia and Europe. Latvia's structural convergence towards both the EU and other neighbouring (Baltic) countries is estimated using the Krugman index. Real convergence processes in the EU, distinguishing between ? convergence and beta convergence, are likewise studied. In addition, cluster analysis with grouping European countries by their structural features is conducted. In this study, the current beta convergence and sigma convergence processes within the EU are identified, yet an in-depth study disclosed that it was mostly the EU12 countries that were the convergence process drivers, with convergence at the regional level well behind that at the national level. The convergence among the EU Member States primarily depended on the wealthier regions of countries becoming richer (characteristic of EU12 in particular), with the process proceeding at a faster pace in relatively poorer countries. This suggests that within a country the discrepancies between rich and poor regions intensify over time. That leads to a conclusion that the European regional policy aimed at decreasing regional income heterogeneity did not prove efficient in the reference period. Structural convergence in Latvia was mainly observed in 2008 and 2009, i.e. the years of real divergence enhanced by the onset of the crisis. Structural convergence in the breakdown of gross value added was mainly driven by the fluctuations of the value added ratio of trade, tourism and transport, manufacturing and construction sector. The conducted cluster analysis demonstrates that over time European countries have become more homogenous or mutually similar in terms of economic structure. A particular focus on the specific economic characteristics of countries leads to a different conclusion: the countries in Europe agglomerated into several specific groups, thus clearly outlining the different drivers of growth in the post-crisis period.

Suggested Citation

  • Aleksejs Melihovs & Igors Kasjanovs, 2011. "The Convergence Processes in Europe and Latvia," Discussion Papers 2011/01, Latvijas Banka.
  • Handle: RePEc:ltv:dpaper:201101
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.bank.lv/images/stories/pielikumi/publikacijas/petijumi/DM_eng_1_2011_kasjanovs_melihovs.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://www.macroeconomics.lv/sites/default/files/dm_eng_1_2011_kasjanovs_melihovs_0.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Iancu, Aurel, 2009. "Real Economic Convergence," Working Papers of National Institute of Economic Research 090104, National Institute of Economic Research.
    2. Robert E. Hall & Charles I. Jones, 1999. "Why do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output Per Worker than Others?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(1), pages 83-116.
    3. Christian Longhi & Antonio Musolesi, 2007. "European cities in the process of economic integration: towards structural convergence," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 41(2), pages 499-499, June.
    4. Palan, Nicole & Schmiedeberg, Claudia, 2010. "Structural convergence of European countries," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 85-100, May.
    5. Klaus Gugler & Michael Pfaffermayr, 2004. "Convergence in Structure and Productivity in European Manufacturing?," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 5(1), pages 61-79, February.
    6. Egger, Hartmut & Egger, Peter & Greenaway, David, 2007. "Intra-industry trade with multinational firms," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(8), pages 1959-1984, November.
    7. Daron Acemoglu & Simon Johnson & James A. Robinson, 2001. "The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(5), pages 1369-1401, December.
    8. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier X., 1996. "Regional cohesion: Evidence and theories of regional growth and convergence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1325-1352, June.
    9. Carmela Martin & Francisco J. Velazquez & Bernard Funck, 2001. "European Integration and Income Convergence : Lessons for Central and Eastern European Countries," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13968.
    10. Jean Imbs & Romain Wacziarg, 2003. "Stages of Diversification," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(1), pages 63-86, March.
    11. Charles I. Jones, 1997. "On the Evolution of the World Income Distribution," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(3), pages 19-36, Summer.
    12. Jeffrey D. Sachs & Andrew M. Warner, 1995. "Economic Convergence and Economic Policies," NBER Working Papers 5039, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Robert M. Solow, 1956. "A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 70(1), pages 65-94.
    14. Krugman, Paul, 1991. "Increasing Returns and Economic Geography," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(3), pages 483-499, June.
    15. Cuadrado-Roura, Juan R. & Mancha Navarro, Tomas & Garrido Yserte, Ruben, 1999. "Real versus virtual growth: An Analysis of regional Dynamics," ERSA conference papers ersa99pa195, European Regional Science Association.
    16. Karl Aiginger, 2000. "Specialisation of European Manufacturing," Austrian Economic Quarterly, WIFO, vol. 5(2), pages 81-92, May.
    17. Bernard G. Funck & Lodovico Pizzati, 2003. "European Integration, Regional Policy, and Growth," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 15144.
    18. Paolo Guerrieri & Simona Iammarino, 2003. "The Dynamics of Export Specialisation in the Regions of the Italian Mezzogiorno: Persistence and Change," SPRU Working Paper Series 105, SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex.
    19. Ann Bartel & Casey Ichniowski & Kathryn Shaw, 2007. "How Does Information Technology Affect Productivity? Plant-Level Comparisons of Product Innovation, Process Improvement, and Worker Skills," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 122(4), pages 1721-1758.
    20. Dowrick, Steve & Nguyen, Duc-Tho, 1989. "OECD Comparative Economic Growth 1950-85: Catch-Up and Convergence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(5), pages 1010-1030, December.
    21. David Cass, 1965. "Optimum Growth in an Aggregative Model of Capital Accumulation," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 32(3), pages 233-240.
    22. Lant Pritchett, 1997. "Divergence, Big Time," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(3), pages 3-17, Summer.
    23. Sassi, Maria, 2007. "Structural Change And Economic Convergence Across The Eu-15 Regions: Can The Agricultural Sector Play a Role?," 81st Annual Conference, April 2-4, 2007, Reading University 7961, Agricultural Economics Society.
    24. Baumol, William J, 1986. "Productivity Growth, Convergence, and Welfare: What the Long-run Data Show," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1072-1085, December.
    25. Andrew T. Young & Matthew J. Higgins & Daniel Levy, 2008. "Sigma Convergence versus Beta Convergence: Evidence from U.S. County-Level Data," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 40(5), pages 1083-1093, August.
    26. Friedman, Milton, 1992. "Do Old Fallacies Ever Die?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(4), pages 2129-2132, December.
    27. Ingianni, Andrea & Žd’árek, Václav, 2009. "Real Convergence in the New Member States: Myth or Reality?," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 24, pages 294-320.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:aud:audfin:v:15:y:2017:i:146:p:266 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Latvia; the EU; structural convergence; real convergence; specialisation; cluster analysis;

    JEL classification:

    • C20 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - General
    • C50 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - General
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • E13 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models - - - Neoclassical
    • E60 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - General

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ltv:dpaper:201101. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Konstantins Benkovskis). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/bolgvlv.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.