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Importing Equality or Exporting Jobs?: Competition and Gender Wage and Employment Differentials in U.S. Manufacturing

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  • Ebru Kongar

Abstract

This study investigates the impact of increased import competition on gender wage and employment differentials in U.S. manufacturing over the period from 1976 to 1993. Increased import competition is expected to decrease the relative demand for workers in low-wage production occupations and the relative demand for women workers, given the high female share in these occupations. The findings support this hypothesis. Disproportionate job losses for women in low-wage production occupations was associated with rising imports in U.S. manufacturing over this period, and as low-wage women lost their jobs, the average wage of the remaining women in the study increased, thereby narrowing the gender wage gap.

Suggested Citation

  • Ebru Kongar, 2005. "Importing Equality or Exporting Jobs?: Competition and Gender Wage and Employment Differentials in U.S. Manufacturing," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_436, Levy Economics Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:lev:wrkpap:wp_436
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Kevin M. Murphy & Finis Welch, 1992. "The Structure of Wages," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(1), pages 285-326.
    2. Steven Shulman, 1987. "Discrimination, Human Capital, and Black-White Unemployment: Evidence from Cities," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 22(3), pages 361-376.
    3. Tzannatos, Zafiris, 1999. "Women and Labor Market Changes in the Global Economy: Growth Helps, Inequalities Hurt and Public Policy Matters," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 551-569, March.
    4. Mehra, Rekha & Gammage, Sarah, 1999. "Trends, Countertrends, and Gaps in Women's Employment," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 533-550, March.
    5. Jeffrey D. Sachs & Howard J. Shatz, 1994. "Trade and Jobs in Manufacturing," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 25(1), pages 1-84.
    6. Maurer-Fazio, Margaret & Hughes, James, 2002. "The Effects of Market Liberalization on the Relative Earnings of Chinese Women," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 709-731, December.
    7. Ozler, Sule, 2000. "Export Orientation and Female Share of Employment: Evidence from Turkey," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(7), pages 1239-1248, July.
    8. O'Neill, June, 1985. "The Trend in the Male-Female Wage Gap in the United States," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages 91-116, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. GÓMEZ , Nuria & TOBARRA, María-Ángeles & LÓPEZ, Luis-Antonio, 2014. "Employment Opportunities In Spain: Gender Differences By Education And Ict Usage," Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 14(3), pages 105-130.
    2. Shireen AlAzzawi, 2013. "Did Trade Liberalization Benefit Female Workers? Evidence on Wage and Employment Effects from Egypt," Working Papers 787, Economic Research Forum, revised Oct 2013.

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