Timing and Flexibility of Housework and Men and Women's Wages
This paper analyses the effect of housework on men and women’s wages in Denmark by estimating quantile regressions on Danish time use survey data from 1987, merged to register information on hourly wages and other labour market variables for each of the years 1987-1991. We find, as in U.S. studies, that housework has negative effects on the wages of women and positive effects on the wages of men, except at the high end of the conditional wage distribution. At the 90th quantile, housework has a positive effect on the wages of women and a negative effect on the wages of men, and in fact, high-wage men receive the largest wage penalty of doing housework. Timing and flexibility of housework turn out to be more important than the level of housework, and women, particularly at the high end of the conditional wage distribution, who time their housework immediately before or after market work or engage in home tasks that require contiguous blocks of time are significantly penalized in terms of lower wages. These findings are even stronger for married and cohabiting couples and for workers on fixed time schedules as opposed to workers with flexible time schedules which are part of a bargain with the employer.
|Date of creation:||Aug 2003|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published in: D.S. Hamermesh and G.A. Pfann (eds.). Contributions to Economic Analysis, Vol. 271, , Elsevier Press, 2004|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Schettkat, Ronald, 2002.
"Differences in US-German time-allocation: Why do Americans work longer hours than Germans?,"
Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Labor Market Policy and Employment
FS I 02-212, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
- Schettkat, Ronald, 2003. "Differences in US-German Time-Allocation: Why Do Americans Work Longer Hours than Germans?," IZA Discussion Papers 697, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Koenker,Roger, 2005.
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521608275, November.
- Koenker, Roger W & Bassett, Gilbert, Jr, 1978. "Regression Quantiles," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 33-50, January.
- Moulton, Brent R, 1990. "An Illustration of a Pitfall in Estimating the Effects of Aggregate Variables on Micro Unit," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 334-38, May.
- Moshe Buchinsky, 1998. "Recent Advances in Quantile Regression Models: A Practical Guideline for Empirical Research," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 33(1), pages 88-126.
- Becker, Gary S, 1985. "Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of Labor," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages S33-58, January.
- Datta Gupta, Nabanita & Smith, Nina, 2002.
"Children and Career Interruptions: The Family Gap in Denmark,"
London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 69(276), pages 609-29, November.
- Gupta, N.D. & Smith, N., 2000. "Children and Career Interruptions: the Family Gap in Denmark," Papers 00-03, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research, Danmark-.
- Datta Gupta, Nabanita & Smith, Nina, 2001. "Children and Career Interruptions: The Family Gap in Denmark," IZA Discussion Papers 263, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Gubta, Nabanita Datta & Smith, Nina, 2000. "Children and Career Interruptions: The Family Gap in Denmark," CLS Working Papers 00-3, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research.
- Reuben Gronau & Daniel S. Hamermesh, 2008.
"The Demand for Variety: A Household Production Perspective,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 90(3), pages 562-572, August.
- Hamermesh, Daniel S. & Gronau, Reuben, 2007. "The Demand for Variety: A Household Production Perspective," IZA Discussion Papers 2767, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Reuben Gronau & Daniel S. Hamermesh, 2001. "The Demand for Variety: A Household Production Perspective," NBER Working Papers 8509, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hersch, Joni, 1991. "The Impact of Nonmarket Work on Market Wages," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(2), pages 157-60, May.
- Helena Skyt Nielsen & Marianne Simonsen & Mette Verner, 2004.
"Does the Gap in Family-friendly Policies Drive the Family Gap?,"
Scandinavian Journal of Economics,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 106(4), pages 721-744, December.
- Helena Skyt Nielsen & Marianne Simonsen & Mette Verner, . "Does the Gap in Family-Friendly Policies Drive the Family Gap?," Economics Working Papers 2003-1, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
- Nielsen, Helena Skyt & Simonsen, Marianne & Verner, Mette, 2002. "Does the Gap in Family-friendly Policies Drive the Family Gap?," Working Papers 02-19, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Omar Arias & Walter Sosa-Escudero & Kevin F. Hallock, 2001.
"Individual heterogeneity in the returns to schooling: instrumental variables quantile regression using twins data,"
Springer, vol. 26(1), pages 7-40.
- Omar Arias & Kevin F. Hallock & Walter Sosa Escudero, 1999. "Individual Heterogeneity in the Returns to Schooling: Instrumental Variables Quantile Regression using Twins Data," Department of Economics, Working Papers 016, Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
- Jacobsen, Joyce P. & Kooreman, Peter, 2004.
"Timing Constraints and the Allocation of Time: The Effects of Changing Shopping Hours Regulations in the Netherlands,"
IZA Discussion Papers
1309, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Jacobsen, Joyce P. & Kooreman, Peter, 2005. "Timing constraints and the allocation of time: The effects of changing shopping hours regulations in The Netherlands," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 9-27, January.
- Albrecht, James & Björklund, Anders & Vroman, Susan, 2001.
"Is There a Glass Ceiling in Sweden?,"
IZA Discussion Papers
282, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Leslie S. Stratton, 2001. "Why Does More Housework Lower Women's Wages? Testing Hypotheses Involving Job Effort and Hours Flexibility," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 82(1), pages 67-76.
- Joni Hersch & Leslie S. Stratton, 2002. "Housework and Wages," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 37(1), pages 217-229.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp860. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.