IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/iza/izadps/dp10216.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Trajectories of Neighborhood Change: Spatial Patterns of Increasing Ethnic Diversity

Author

Listed:
  • Zwiers, Merle

    (Delft University of Technology)

  • van Ham, Maarten

    (Delft University of Technology)

  • Manley, David

    (University of Bristol)

Abstract

Western cities are increasingly ethnically diverse and in most cities the share of ethnic minorities is growing. Studies analyzing changing ethnic geographies often limit their analysis to changes in ethnic concentrations in neighborhoods between two points in time. Such a static approach limits our understanding of pathways of ethnic neighborhood change, and of the underlying factors contributing to change. This paper analyzes full trajectories of neighborhood change in the four largest cities in the Netherlands between 1999 and 2013. Our modelling strategy categorizes neighborhoods based on their unique growth trajectories of the ethnic population composition, providing a longitudinal view of ethnic segregation. Our results show that the ethnic composition in neighborhoods remains relatively stable over time. We find evidence for a slow trend towards deconcentration of ethnic minorities and increased (spatial) population mixing in most neighborhoods. We show how residential mobility decreases segregation, while natural population growth tends to reinforce segregation. While the ethnic minority presence in cities grows, there is a substantial share of neighborhoods which can be identified as white citadels; characterized by a stable large native population, with high incomes and high house values. These neighborhoods seem to be inaccessible to ethnic minorities, which illustrates the spatial manifestation of exclusionary elitism in increasingly ethnically diverse cities.

Suggested Citation

  • Zwiers, Merle & van Ham, Maarten & Manley, David, 2016. "Trajectories of Neighborhood Change: Spatial Patterns of Increasing Ethnic Diversity," IZA Discussion Papers 10216, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp10216
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://docs.iza.org/dp10216.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Deirdre Pfeiffer & Emily Tumpson Molina, 2013. "The Trajectory of REOs in Southern California Latino Neighborhoods: An Uneven Geography of Recovery," Housing Policy Debate, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(1), pages 81-109, January.
    2. Cody Hochstenbach & Wouter PC van Gent, 2015. "An anatomy of gentrification processes: variegating causes of neighbourhood change," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 47(7), pages 1480-1501, July.
    3. Michael Poulsen & Ron Johnston & James Forrest, 2011. "Using Local Statistics and Neighbourhood Classifications to Portray Ethnic Residential Segregation: A London Example," Environment and Planning B, , vol. 38(4), pages 636-658, August.
    4. Ludi Simpson & Vasilis Gavalas & Nissa Finney, 2008. "Population Dynamics in Ethnically Diverse Towns: The Long-term Implications of Immigration," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 45(1), pages 163-183, January.
    5. Borjas, George J., 1999. "The economic analysis of immigration," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 28, pages 1697-1760, Elsevier.
    6. Sako Musterd & Mariïılle De Winter, 1998. "Conditions for spatial segregation: some European perspectives," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(4), pages 665-673, December.
    7. Nick Bailey, 2012. "How Spatial Segregation Changes over Time: Sorting Out the Sorting Processes," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 44(3), pages 705-722, March.
    8. van Ham, Maarten & Tammaru, Tiit, 2016. "New Perspectives on Ethnic Segregation over Time and Space: A Domains Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 9663, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    9. Ludi Simpson, 2004. "Statistics of Racial Segregation: Measures, Evidence and Policy," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 41(3), pages 661-681, March.
    10. Ronald van Kempen & Hugo Priemus, 2002. "Revolution in Social Housing in the Netherlands: Possible Effects of New Housing Policies," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 39(2), pages 237-253, February.
    11. Robert Sampson & Patrick Sharkey, 2008. "Neighborhood selection and the social reproduction of concentrated racial inequality," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 45(1), pages 1-29, February.
    12. William AV Clark & Rory Coulter, 2015. "Who wants to move? The role of neighbourhood change," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 47(12), pages 2683-2709, December.
    13. George C. Galster, 1990. "White Flight from Racially Integrated Neighbourhoods in the 1970s: the Cleveland Experience," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 27(3), pages 385-399, June.
    14. Yang, Chih-Chien, 2006. "Evaluating latent class analysis models in qualitative phenotype identification," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 50(4), pages 1090-1104, February.
    15. David Manley & Maarten van Ham, 2011. "Choice-based Letting, Ethnicity and Segregation in England," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 48(14), pages 3125-3143, November.
    16. Ludi Simpson, 2007. "Ghettos of the mind: the empirical behaviour of indices of segregation and diversity," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 170(2), pages 405-424, March.
    17. Tiit Tammaru & Maarten Ham, 2016. "New Perspectives on Ethnic Segregation over Time and Space: A Domains Approach," Working Papers id:9352, eSocialSciences.
    18. Maarten van Ham & Peteke Feijten, 2008. "Who Wants to Leave the Neighbourhood? The Effect of Being Different from the Neighbourhood Population on Wishes to Move," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 40(5), pages 1151-1170, May.
    19. Gideon Bolt & Ronald van Kempen & Maarten van Ham, 2008. "Minority Ethnic Groups in the Dutch Housing Market: Spatial Segregation, Relocation Dynamics and Housing Policy," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 45(7), pages 1359-1384, June.
    20. William Clark & Valerie Ledwith, 2007. "How much does income matter in neighborhood choice?," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 26(2), pages 145-161, April.
    21. Brienna Perelli-Harris & Mark Amos, 2015. "Changes in partnership patterns across the life course," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 33(6), pages 145-178.
    22. Katleen Peleman, 2002. "The Impact of Residential Segregation on Participation in Associations: The Case of Moroccan Women in Belgium," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 39(4), pages 727-747, April.
    23. Monkkonen, Paavo & Zhang, Xiaohu, 2014. "Innovative measurement of spatial segregation: Comparative evidence from Hong Kong and San Francisco," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 99-111.
    24. Kevin M. Dunn, 1998. "Rethinking Ethnic Concentration: The Case of Cabramatta, Sydney," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 35(3), pages 503-527, March.
    25. Peteke Feijten & Maarten van Ham, 2009. "Neighbourhood Change... Reason to Leave?," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 46(10), pages 2103-2122, September.
    26. Bobby L. Jones & Daniel S. Nagin, 2013. "A Note on a Stata Plugin for Estimating Group-based Trajectory Models," Sociological Methods & Research, , vol. 42(4), pages 608-613, November.
    27. Michael Poulsen & Ron Johnston & James Forrest, 2001. "Intraurban Ethnic Enclaves: Introducing a Knowledge-Based Classification Method," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 33(11), pages 2071-2082, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Pan Ké Shon, Jean-Louis & Verdugo, Gregory, 2014. "Forty Years of Immigrant Segregation in France, 1968-2007: How Different Is the New Immigration?," IZA Discussion Papers 8062, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    2. Albert Sabater & Gemma Catney, 2019. "Unpacking Summary Measures of Ethnic Residential Segregation Using an Age Group and Age Cohort Perspective," European Journal of Population, Springer;European Association for Population Studies, vol. 35(1), pages 161-189, February.
    3. van Ham, Maarten & Manley, David, 2012. "Segregation, Choice Based Letting and Social Housing: How Housing Policy Can Affect the Segregation Process," IZA Discussion Papers 6372, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    4. van Ham, Maarten & Tammaru, Tiit & de Vuijst, Elise & Zwiers, Merle, 2016. "Spatial Segregation and Socio-Economic Mobility in European Cities," IZA Discussion Papers 10277, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    5. Zwiers, Merle & Bolt, Gideon & van Ham, Maarten & van Kempen, Ronald, 2014. "Neighborhood Decline and the Economic Crisis," IZA Discussion Papers 8749, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Matt Vogel & Merle Zwiers, 2018. "The Consequences of Spatial Inequality for Adolescent Residential Mobility," Social Sciences, MDPI, vol. 7(9), pages 1-15, September.
    7. David Manley & Maarten van Ham, 2011. "Choice-based Letting, Ethnicity and Segregation in England," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 48(14), pages 3125-3143, November.
    8. William AV Clark & Rory Coulter, 2015. "Who wants to move? The role of neighbourhood change," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 47(12), pages 2683-2709, December.
    9. Lina Hedman & Maarten van Ham & David Manley, 2011. "Neighbourhood Choice and Neighbourhood Reproduction," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 43(6), pages 1381-1399, June.
    10. Vassilis Tselios & Inge Noback & Philip McCann & Jouke van Dijk, 2015. "Local social engagement, satisfaction, and embeddedness in the Netherlands: which effects matter and for whom?," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 47(5), pages 1132-1154, May.
    11. Ong, C., 2014. "Tipping points? Ethnic composition change in Dutch big city neighbourhoods," MERIT Working Papers 2014-011, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    12. Stonawski, Marcin Jan & Rogne, Adrian F. & Bang, Henrik & Christensen, Henning & Lyngstad, Torkild Hovde, 2019. "Ethnic Segregation and Native Out-Migration in Copenhagen," SocArXiv tx7b6, Center for Open Science.
    13. Manley, David & van Ham, Maarten & Hedman, Lina, 2018. "Experienced and Inherited Disadvantage: A Longitudinal Study of Early Adulthood Neighbourhood Careers of Siblings," IZA Discussion Papers 11335, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    14. Cheng Boon Ong, 2017. "Tipping points in Dutch big city neighbourhoods," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 54(4), pages 1016-1037, March.
    15. Jean-Louis Pan Ké Shon & Gregory Verdugo, 2015. "Forty years of immigrant segregation in France, 1968–2007. How different is the new immigration?," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 52(5), pages 823-840, April.
    16. Ying Huang & Scott J. South & Amy Spring, 2017. "Racial Differences in Neighborhood Attainment: The Contributions of Interneighborhood Migration and In Situ Change," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 54(5), pages 1819-1843, October.
    17. Sanne Boschman & Maarten van Ham, 2015. "Neighbourhood selection of non-Western ethnic minorities: testing the own-group effects hypothesis using a conditional logit model," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 47(5), pages 1155-1174, May.
    18. William A. V. Clark & Philip S. Morrison, 2012. "Socio-spatial Mobility and Residential Sorting: Evidence from a Large-scale Survey," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 49(15), pages 3253-3270, November.
    19. Willem Boterman & Sako Musterd & Carolina Pacchi & Costanzo Ranci, 2019. "School segregation in contemporary cities: Socio-spatial dynamics, institutional context and urban outcomes," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 56(15), pages 3055-3073, November.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    ethnic segregation; neighborhood trajectories; population dynamics; latent class growth modelling; longitudinal study;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp10216. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Holger Hinte (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/izaaade.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.